AP Biology Practice Test 14: Transmission of Information

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Question 1
Which part of your nervous system would likely be activated if you just realized you overslept and a final exam begins in just 10 minutes?

A
Sympathetic
B
Parasympathetic
C
Enteric
D
Reticular
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The sympathetic division gives the “fight-or-flight” response. The parasympathetic division gives the “rest and digest” response. The enteric division consists of networks of neurons in the digestive tract, pancreas and gallbladder. The reticular formation is a network of neurons located at the core of the brainstem, acting as a sensory filter for the cerebral cortex.
Question 2
Which portion of the brain is responsible for homeostasis, transmission of information to and from higher brain centers, and coordinated movement? It is sometimes referred to as the “lower brain.”

A
Cerebellum
B
Cerebrum
C
Diencephalon
D
Brainstem
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The brainstem includes the midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata. The cerebellum coordinates movement and balance. The cerebrum is the information processing center of mammals. The diencephalon includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.
Question 3
Which part of the cerebral cortex controls vision?

A
Frontal lobe
B
Temporal lobe
C
Parietal lobe
D
Occipital
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The frontal lobe controls speech. The temporal lobe controls smell and hearing. The parietal lobe controls speech, taste, and reading. The occipital lobe controls vision.
Question 4
If your grandfather started showing symptoms of muscle tremors, poor balance, and shuffling gait, which of the following diseases should you suspect?

A
Alzheimer’s Disease
B
Parkinson’s Disease
C
Schizophrenia
D
Depression
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The question describes symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease, a neurodegenerative disorder that comes about as a result of the loss of dopamine-producing neurons.
Question 5
If an individual suspected of having brain damage presented symptoms affecting his verbal and written communication, the damage is likely to be present in which lobe(s)?

A
Temporal lobe
B
Occipital lobe
C
Temporal and Frontal lobes
D
Frontal and Parietal lobes
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The frontal and parietal areas of the brain are associated with speech and reading.
Question 6
In the fall of 1957, Hans Fromme was conducting research at the Frankfurt Zoological Institute in Germany. He noticed that several caged European robins were becoming restless and attempting to fly to the southwestern part of the cage. Fromme wondered how the birds knew which direction they were supposed to be migrating, since they were in a darkened room and could not see any landmarks, the sun or the stars.
 
Which type of sensory cell receptor is responsible for guiding the migration of the robins?

A
Mechanoreceptors
B
Chemoreceptors
C
Electromagnetic receptors
D
Thermoreceptors
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Electromagnetic receptors detect electromagnetic energy and assist animals as they migrate along the Earth’s magnetic field lines.
Question 7
Which of the following choices represents the correct flow of sensory information in a simple sensory pathway?

A
Reception → Transduction → Transmission → Perception
B
Perception → Transduction → Transmission → Reception
C
Transduction → Transmission → Perception → Reception
D
Reception → Perception → Transmission → Transduction
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Sensory pathways begin with the reception of sensory information, in which the stimulus is detected by sensory cells. The stimulus is converted to a change in the membrane potential of a sensory receptor during transduction. Nerve impulses transmit the sensory information through the nervous system via nerve impulses during transmission. Finally, when the brain receives the information, the information is processed, generating a perception.
Question 8
If a mother graylag goose’s egg rolls out of its nest, the goose will instinctively roll it back with its beak. Interestingly, if the egg is removed from the goose while it is rolling it back to the nest, the goose will continue the behavior as if moving an imaginary egg. In addition, the goose will also try to retrieve other objects that are shaped like an egg, such as a golf ball, and return them to them to the next.
 
This is an example of what type of behavior?

A
Kinesis
B
Taxis
C
Fixed Action Pattern
D
Habituation
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). A fixed action pattern is a sequence of instinctive actions that, one begun, are typically carried out to completion.
Question 9
Prairie dogs give an alarm call when a suspected predator is nearby. When prairie dog habitats are located near trails used by humans or located in a zoo, they do not give alarm calls each time a human approaches.
 
This is an example of what type of behavior?

A
Imprinting
B
Spatial learning
C
Associative learning
D
Habituation
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Habituation occurs when an animal stops responding to a stimulus that conveys little or no new information. This allows an animal’s nervous system to more important signals, such as those that signal the presence of a mate, food or serious threat.
Question 10
Which type of signaling molecule is triggered by endocrine glands?

A
Hormones
B
Local regulators
C
Neurotransmitters
D
Pheromones
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Hormones are secreted into extracellular fluids by endocrine cells, and reach their target cells through the bloodstream.
Question 11
Which of the following correctly describes aspects of the endocrine system and the nervous system?

A
Both systems act very quickly to relay information to various parts of the body
B
Both systems send impulses directly to a specific part of the body as an impulse that targets specific cells
C
In both systems information can be received by various cells in different organs and in different parts of the body
D
Both systems contribute to maintaining a stable internal environment within an organism
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The endocrine system uses hormones released into the bloodstream that travel to all parts of the body. Hormones are slow acting and can affect various cells. The nervous system uses impulses to quickly send information along axon to a specific location. Both systems help maintain homeostasis.
Question 12
Which of the following is a selfless behavior exhibited by some animals living in a close-knit society, where some animals behave in such a way as to reduce their individual fitness but increase the overall fitness of the population?

A
Altruism
B
Inclusive fitness
C
Social learning
D
Agonistic behavior
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Altruism is exhibited when an animal in a close-knit group, such as prairie dogs, seemingly puts its survival on the line to benefit the group. For example, a prairie dog will “sound the alarm” when an intruder is nearby to alert its colony. This draws attention to the individual sounding the alarm and could lead to death of the individual but save the others in the colony.
Question 13
The cell’s breakdown of sugar generates chemical energy in the form of ATP. When the cell makes more ATP than it can use, the excess ATP inhibits an enzyme near the beginning of the pathway and slows process of ATP production. What type of mechanism is described?

A
Positive feedback
B
Negative feedback
C
Cell-to-cell signaling
D
Signal recognition pathway
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). A negative feedback system acts to dampen the initial affect whereas a positive feedback system acts to amplify the initial affect.
Question 14
When an adult vervet monkey sees an eagle, it gives a specific alarm call (a short-double-syllabled cough). They are able to distinguish among eagle species and only sound the alarm for the two species that eat vervets. Infant vervet monkeys, however, give very undiscriminating alarm calls. They sound an alarm call every time they see a bird. As they get older, their accuracy improves. Infant vervet monkeys probably learn how to give the right call by observing other group members and receiving social confirmation. For example, if the infant gives the call and there is in fact a predator, the other group members will also give the alarm call. But if the organism is not a threat, the other members of the group remain silent.
 
The type of learning illustrated by this example is known as:

A
Reciprocal altruism
B
Operant conditioning
C
Imprinting
D
Social learning
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Reciprocal altruism is when animals behave altruistically towards nonrelatives. Operant conditioning is trial and error learning. Imprinting involves a specific stage in life during which long-lasting behavioral response is formed to a particular individual or object. Social learning involves learning by observing others.
Question 15
Which of the following gland is incorrectly matched to its function?

A
Thyroid – involved in biological rhythms
B
Pancreas – raises and lowers blood glucose levels
C
Adrenal glands – secrete hormones in response to stress
D
Pineal gland – involved in the regulation of sleep patterns
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The thyroid gland stimulates and maintains metabolic processes and lowers blood calcium levels. The pancreas raises and lowers blood glucose levels. The adrenal glands raise blood glucose levels, increase metabolic activities, constrict certain blood vessels and promote reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium in the kidneys. The pineal gland is involved in biological rhythms.
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