AP Biology Practice Test 8: Growth & Homeostasis

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Question 1
Thermoregulation involves maintaining an internal body temperature within a tolerable range. Which of the following organisms are considered ectothermic?

A
Mallard duck
B
Walrus
C
Python
D
Bat
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Snakes gain most of their heat from an outside source, making them ectotherms.
Question 2
Which types of animals excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of ammonia?

A
Fish
B
Mammals
C
Birds
D
Reptiles
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Animals that excrete ammonia need access to lots of water because ammonia can only be tolerated at very low concentrations.
Question 3
Which description best describes a cell-mediated response to a pathogen?

A
Defenses, such as skin, mucous membranes and secretions that form a barrier
B
The proliferation of B cells
C
Antibodies defending against infections in body fluids
D
Cytotoxic T cells defending the body against cells
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Cytotoxic T cells attack foreign cells, cells infected with a virus and cancerous cells.
Question 4
Saliva, tears, epithelial tissues and the mucous membranes of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts make up which part of the mammalian immune system?

A
Barrier defenses
B
Internal defenses
C
Humoral response
D
Cell-mediated response
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Barrier defenses block the entry of pathogens into the body.
Question 5
If a body cell does not have the protein called a class I MHC molecule on its surface, it is likely that it has been infected by a virus or converted into a cancerous state. What type of cell patrols the body, attaches to cells without class I MHC molecules, and kills the cell so it cannot spread the virus or cancer?

A
Histamines
B
Natural killer cells
C
Interferons
D
Memory cells
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Natural killer cells help recognize and eliminate certain diseased cells in vertebrates by secreting chemicals if they do not have a protein called a class I MHC molecule on their surface (with the exception of red blood cells).
Question 6
Which type of response to a pathogen in plants leads to cell and tissue death near the infection site, thereby preventing the spread of the disease?

A
Systemic acquired resistance
B
Gene-for-gene recognition
C
Hypersensitive response
D
Recruitment of parasitoids
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). A hypersensitive response takes place when a plant produces antimicrobial molecules, seals off infected cells, and kills off cells and/or tissues that are infected. System acquired resistance involve signaling molecules that put the entire plant on alert for a pathogen. Gene-for-gene recognition is the mechanism that allows the plant to recognize pathogens based on the recognition of pathogen-derived molecules. Plants recruit parasitic organisms that defend the plant against herbivores (not pathogens).
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