AP Environmental Science Practice Test: The Living World

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Question 1
This principle states that unless there are specific disturbing influences introduced, both allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation.

A
Gauss's Law
B
Boyle's Law
C
The Hasse Principle
D
The Hardy-Weinberg Principle
E
Mendel's Law of Segregation
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Although the validity of the Hardy-Weinberg Principle relies upon a set of assumptions, it remains useful in providing an ideal scenario with which real world data can be compared. The equation: p² + 2pq + q² = 1, where p is the frequency of a dominant allele, and q is the frequency of a recessive allele is used to calculate the genetic variation in a population. In nature there are always disturbing influences, so the Hardy-Weinberg Principle is meant to provide a baseline to measure against the changes that are occurring.
Question 2
The increasing concentration of a toxic substance in the tissues of organisms at successively higher levels of the food chain is known as:

A
Biomagnification
B
Bioaccumulation
C
Biodilution
D
Bioconcentration
E
Biocide
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Biomagnification occurs across food chain levels when a producer or primary consumer ingests a toxic substance and is in turn consumed by a predator. At each level of the food chain, the concentration of the toxic substance increases. Bioaccumulation and Bioconcentration occur within an organism. Biodilution is the opposite of biomagnification.
Question 3
Which of the following is an r-adapted species?

A
Elephants
B
Mice
C
Gorillas
D
Wolves
E
Whales
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). R-adapted species have adapted for high rates of growth; they are usually smaller in size, require little energy, produce many offspring, exhibit an early maturity and a short life span, and most individuals die within a short period of time, but some individuals live for an extended period of time. K-adapted species have slower growth, are usually much larger, live longer lives, and have adapted to live at or near carrying capacity. Of the choices, mice most closely match the r-adapted species description.
Question 4
A symbiotic relationship between two living organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped is known as:

A
Commensalism
B
Predation
C
Parasitism
D
Mutualism
E
Amensalism
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). In a mutualistic relationship, both organisms derive a benefit. In a commensalistic relationship, one organism benefits and one is not substantially harmed or helped. In a parasitic relationship one organism benefits at the expense of the other’s health. Predation occurs when one animal consumes another in order to extend its own survival. Amensalism takes place when one organism is inhibited and the other is unaffected by the relationship.
Question 5
Earthworms are a type of:

A
Scavenger
B
Parasite
C
Detritivore
D
Omnivore
E
Bottom Feeder
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Detritivores obtain nutrients by consuming decomposing organic matter, or detritus. Scavengers obtain nutrients from carrion or animal waste, they do not possess the enzymes required to utilize detritus for nutrients. Parasites rely upon a living host for their nutrients. Omnivores consume both plants and animals. Bottom feeders are generally aquatic animals that feed along the bottom of a body of water.
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