AP Environmental Science Test: Global Change

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Question 1
Which of the following greenhouse gases is the longest-lasting in the atmosphere?

A
Carbon dioxide
B
Methane
C
Water vapor
D
Nitrous oxide
E
Chlorofluorocarbons
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). Different chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) can remain in the atmosphere for different lengths of time, some for as long as about 140 years. They have a global warming potential ranging from less than 5,000 to over 13,500.
Question 2
Which of the following is NOT a greenhouse gas?

A
Carbon Dioxide
B
Water Vapor
C
Nitrogen
D
Methane
E
Ozone
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). A greenhouse gas is a gas in the atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process causes the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in our atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are not greenhouse gases.
Question 3
Which of the following types of ultraviolet radiation that you are likely to be exposed to will increase your risk of skin cancer?

A
UVA
B
UVB
C
UVC
D
UVA and UVB
E
UVB and UVC
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Both UVA and UVB can damage the skin and cause skin cancer. UVC, which has the potential to be the most damaging of the three types of radiation listed here, is filtered out of the atmosphere by the ozone layer. The ozone layer also filters out the majority of the UVB radiation entering the atmosphere.
Question 4
Which of the following has the greatest Global Warming Potential (GWP)?

A
Carbon dioxide
B
Methane
C
Nitrous oxide
D
Fluorinated gases
E
Carbon monoxide
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Fluorinated gases (such as HFCs and PFCs) are a group of man-made gases used in a range of industrial applications. Because they do not damage the ozone layer, they are often used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances. However, fluorinated gases are powerful greenhouse gases, with a global warming effect that can be thousands of time times greater than that of carbon dioxide.
Question 5
Which country or group of countries contributes the most greenhouse gas emissions?

A
United States
B
European Union
C
India
D
China
E
Japan
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). In 2014, China was responsible for 30% of greenhouse gas emissions. The United States, 15%; European Union, 9%; India 7%, Russian Federation, 5%; and Japan 4%.
Question 6
Which of the following is a potential result of higher average air temperatures?

A
Increase in the frequency or severity of storms
B
Increases in the surface water and/or groundwater inputs
C
Increases in sedimentation in bodies of water
D
Increases in flooding and associated water runoff
E
All of the above
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). Increased average air temperatures can cause these, and many other effects, on the Earth.
Question 7
The melting of glaciers causes which of the following?

A
Landslides
B
Flash floods
C
Glacial lake overflow
D
Displacement of people who depend on glacial melting as a water source
E
All of the above
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). In addition to the list above, glacial melting also increases the variation in the water flows into rivers.
Question 8
Which of the following pieces of laws or treaties established the conservation of marine mammals as a federal responsibility?

A
Multiple-Use Act
B
Paris Agreement
C
Marine Mammal Protection Act
D
Endangered Species Act
E
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The Marine Mammal Protection Act established federal responsibility to conserve marine mammals.

The Multiple-Use Act directed that the national forests be managed for timber, watershed, range, outdoor recreation, wildlife and fish purposes.

The Paris Agreement addresses greenhouse gas emissions and sets forth a global action plan to put the world on track to avoid dangerous climate changes.

The Endangered Species Act provided a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they are found.

CITES is an international agreement between governments to ensure that international trade in wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
Question 9
The International Union for Conservation of Nature uses five categories to define the status of a species. Which category refers to a group of species that is widespread and abundant?

A
Data-deficient
B
Extinct
C
Threatened
D
Near-threatened
E
Least concern
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). The least concern status is for species that are widespread and abundant. Data-deficient species have no reliable data to assess their status. Extinct species are those that were known to exist as recently as the year 1500 but no longer exist. Threatened species have a high risk of extinction in the future. Near-threatened species are very likely to become threatened in the near future.
Question 10
In the 1600s, honeybees (Apis melifera) were introduced to North America to provide a source of honey for European colonists. This makes honeybees a(n):

A
Native species
B
Exotic species
C
Threatened species
D
Invasive species
E
Invasive alien species
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Honeybees are exotic (also known as alien species) species because the live outside their historical range. Native species live in their historical range for thousands of years. Threatened species have a high risk of extinction in the future. Invasive species are non-native, or alien (exotic), species that are considered likely to harm the environment, the economy, or human health. Invasive alien species are alien species spread and change environments.
Question 11
Who maintains the Red List?

A
International Union for the Conservation of Nature
B
Environmental Protection Agency
C
United Nations
D
Greenpeace
E
Sierra Club
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature) maintains a list of threatened species know as the Red List.
Question 12
What is the cause of worldwide loss of biodiversity?

A
Overharvesting
B
Pollution
C
Habitat loss
D
Climate Change
E
All of the above
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). All of the following have contributed to the worldwide loss of biodiversity: overharvesting, pollution, habitat loss, and climate change.
Question 13
Which greenhouse gas is correctly paired with its source?

A
Carbon dioxide — Burning coal and oil
B
Chlorofluorocarbons — Fire extinguishers
C
Nitrous oxide — Cellular respiration
D
Methane — Plastic manufacturing
E
Sulfur hexafluoride — Rice cultivation
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Carbon dioxide comes from burning coal and oil, as well as deforestation and cellular respiration. Chlorofluorocarbons are from air conditioners, refrigerators, foam products and insulation. Nitrous oxide is from burning fossil fuels, fertilizers, livestock wastes, and plastic manufacturing. Methane is from rice cultivation, cattle/sheep raising, landfills, natural gas leaks, and coal production. Sulfur hexafluoride is from the electrical industry as a replacement for PCBs.
Question 14
Over the past 100 years, global temperatures have:

A
increased steadily.
B
increased, with virtually of all the increase occurring in the last 40 years.
C
fluctuated within a narrow range, with no net increase.
D
increased, with most of the increase occurring from 1940 to 1980.
E
decreased steadily, before a sharp increase in the last 20 years.
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Over the past 100 years average global temperatures have risen by a little more than 1°C. The trend of increasing temperatures began in the late '70s. Seventeen of the 18 warmest years in the 136-year record all have occurred since 2001.
Question 15
Which of the following agreements was designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the global production of numerous substances which cause ozone depletion?

A
Clean Air Act
B
Kyoto Protocol
C
Paris Agreement
D
Montreal Protocol
E
Air Pollution Control Act
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The Montreal Protocol is an international agreement designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer.

The Clean Air Act was passed in 1963 was designed to control air pollution on a national level.

The Kyoto Protocol is a plan created by the United Nations that tries to reduce the effects of climate change.

Paris Agreement set out a global action plan to put the world on tract to avoid dangerous climate changes.

The Air Pollution Control Act addressed air pollution as a national problem and announced that research and additional steps to improve the situation needed to be taken.
Question 16
This 1992 UN treaty to reduce greenhouse gases placed binding emission reduction targets on developed countries:

A
Clean Air Act
B
Kyoto Protocol
C
Paris Agreement
D
Montreal Protocol
E
Air Pollution Control Act
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The Kyoto Protocol was a United Nations plan to fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The agreement put the obligation to reduce emissions on developed countries, mandating that 37 industrialized nations plus the European Community cut their greenhouse gas emissions. More than 100 developing countries, including China and India, were not required to reduce emissions. The United States never ratified the agreement and Canada withdrew from it in 2011.
Question 17
This 2016 UN agreement on greenhouse gas emissions allows each country to determine, plan, and report on its contribution, with no enforcement mechanism:

A
Clean Air Act
B
Kyoto Protocol
C
Paris Agreement
D
Montreal Protocol
E
Air Pollution Control Act
Question 17 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The Paris Agreement states that the threat of climate change is "urgent and potentially irreversible," and can only be addressed through "the widest possible cooperation by all countries" and "deep reductions in global emissions." The goal of the agreement is to hold the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels. Each country submitted a voluntary pledge to reduce emissions beginning in 2020. In June 2017, President Trump announced his intention to withdraw the US from the agreement.
Question 18
Which of the following is NOT a naturally occurring greenhouse gas?

A
Methane
B
Nitrous oxide
C
Chlorofluorocarbons
D
Carbon dioxide
E
Water vapor
Question 18 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). There are no know naturally occurring sources of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
Question 19
A strategy for pollution control that involves regulations and enforcement mechanisms is known as the

A
command-and-control approach.
B
incentive-based approach.
C
green tax approach.
D
triple bottom line approach.
E
environmental justice approach.
Question 19 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The “command-and-control approach” is a method for pollution control that focuses on regulations and enforcement mechanisms. The word “command” describes the specific laws and regulations that are enforced, and the word “control” refers to the actual means of enforcement.
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