AP European History Practice Test: Period 2 (1648–1815)

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Question 1
Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below:

“Under the Consulate XXXX reverted to a form of enlightened despotism, and YYYY may be thought of as the last and most eminent of the enlightened despots. Despotic the new regime undoubtedly was from the start. Self-governing through elected bodies was ruthlessly pushed aside. YYYY delighted in affirming the sovereignty of the people; but to his mind the people was a sovereign, like Voltaire’s God, who somehow created the world but never thereafter interfered in it. He clearly saw that a government’s authority was greater when it was held to represent the entire nation. In the weeks after Brumaire he assured himself of a popular mandate by devising a written constitution and submitting it to a gnarl referendum or “plebiscite.” The voters could take it — or nothing. They took it by a majority officially reported as 3,011,007 to 1,562.”

R.R. Palmer, A History of the Modern World, multiple editions
 
XXXX is

A
Austria
B
France
C
Prussia
D
Russia
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The terms “Consulate” and “Brumaire” are clues that this passage is about the French Revolution. The other three countries had enlightened monarchs, but none were as great as Napoleon in Palmer’s opinion.
Question 2
Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below:

“Under the Consulate XXXX reverted to a form of enlightened despotism, and YYYY may be thought of as the last and most eminent of the enlightened despots. Despotic the new regime undoubtedly was from the start. Self-governing through elected bodies was ruthlessly pushed aside. YYYY delighted in affirming the sovereignty of the people; but to his mind the people was a sovereign, like Voltaire’s God, who somehow created the world but never thereafter interfered in it. He clearly saw that a government’s authority was greater when it was held to represent the entire nation. In the weeks after Brumaire he assured himself of a popular mandate by devising a written constitution and submitting it to a gnarl referendum or “plebiscite.” The voters could take it — or nothing. They took it by a majority officially reported as 3,011,007 to 1,562.”

R.R. Palmer, A History of the Modern World, multiple editions
 
YYYY is

A
Catherine the Great
B
Frederick the Great
C
Joseph II
D
Napoleon Bonaparte
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). If one knows that the passage is about the French Revolution, then Napoleon Bonaparte is the only logical answer. Catherine the Great (A) was in Russia, Frederick the Great (B) was in Prussia, and Joseph II (C) was in Austria.
Question 3
Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below:

“Under the Consulate XXXX reverted to a form of enlightened despotism, and YYYY may be thought of as the last and most eminent of the enlightened despots. Despotic the new regime undoubtedly was from the start. Self-governing through elected bodies was ruthlessly pushed aside. YYYY delighted in affirming the sovereignty of the people; but to his mind the people was a sovereign, like Voltaire’s God, who somehow created the world but never thereafter interfered in it. He clearly saw that a government’s authority was greater when it was held to represent the entire nation. In the weeks after Brumaire he assured himself of a popular mandate by devising a written constitution and submitting it to a gnarl referendum or “plebiscite.” The voters could take it — or nothing. They took it by a majority officially reported as 3,011,007 to 1,562.”

R.R. Palmer, A History of the Modern World, multiple editions
 
Napoleon Bonaparte was

A
Catholic
B
deist
C
Lutheran
D
Orthodox Christian
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Napoleon, like most prominent people who followed Enlightenment philosophy, was a deist—he believed in the existence of God, but unlike Christians, did not claim to know the nature of God and did not believe God intervened in human affairs.
Question 4
Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below:

“Under the Consulate XXXX reverted to a form of enlightened despotism, and YYYY may be thought of as the last and most eminent of the enlightened despots. Despotic the new regime undoubtedly was from the start. Self-governing through elected bodies was ruthlessly pushed aside. YYYY delighted in affirming the sovereignty of the people; but to his mind the people was a sovereign, like Voltaire’s God, who somehow created the world but never thereafter interfered in it. He clearly saw that a government’s authority was greater when it was held to represent the entire nation. In the weeks after Brumaire he assured himself of a popular mandate by devising a written constitution and submitting it to a gnarl referendum or “plebiscite.” The voters could take it — or nothing. They took it by a majority officially reported as 3,011,007 to 1,562.”

R.R. Palmer, A History of the Modern World, multiple editions
 
From Palmer’s perspective, the reference to the vote is

A
conflated
B
decisive
C
erroneous
D
skeptical
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Palmer implies that Napoleon submitted a constitution to a plebiscite because he already knew what the result would be. The results of the vote may have been conflated (A), decisive (B), or erroneous (C), but Palmer is himself skeptical and uses the word “official” to indicate that the real vote total may have been something else.
Question 5
Questions 5–7 refer to the passage below:

“And thereupon the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, pursuant to their respective letters and elections, being now assembled in a full and free representative of this nation, taking into their most serious consideration the best means for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the first place (as their ancestors in like case have usually done) for the vindicating and asserting their ancient rights and liberties declare

That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal;

That the commission for erecting the late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious;

That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal;

That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;

That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;"

The English Bill of Rights, 1689
 
The passage above was written in the aftermath of the

A
English Civil War
B
Glorious Revolution
C
Seven Years' War
D
Nine Years' War
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The English Bill of Rights followed the Glorious Revolution, which was in 1688. None of the other options are contemporary with the Bill of Rights, and the Nine Years War (D) was a French War.
Question 6
Questions 5–7 refer to the passage below:

“And thereupon the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, pursuant to their respective letters and elections, being now assembled in a full and free representative of this nation, taking into their most serious consideration the best means for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the first place (as their ancestors in like case have usually done) for the vindicating and asserting their ancient rights and liberties declare

That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal;

That the commission for erecting the late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious;

That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal;

That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;

That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;"

The English Bill of Rights, 1689
 
The Bill of Rights established all the following EXCEPT

A
constitutional monarchy
B
limited monarchy
C
parliamentary sovereignty
D
separation of church and state
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The passage refers to the “Lords Spiritual” (the bishops), the “Lords Temporal,” and the Commons as meeting together as a Parliament. Therefore, there is no separation of church and state. The Bill of Rights confirmed constitutional monarchy (A) and limited monarchy (B), which are the same thing, and parliamentary sovereignty (C), which is the notion that parliament, not the monarch, is supreme.
Question 7
Questions 5–7 refer to the passage below:

“And thereupon the said Lords Spiritual and Temporal and Commons, pursuant to their respective letters and elections, being now assembled in a full and free representative of this nation, taking into their most serious consideration the best means for attaining the ends aforesaid, do in the first place (as their ancestors in like case have usually done) for the vindicating and asserting their ancient rights and liberties declare

That the pretended power of suspending the laws or the execution of laws by regal authority without consent of Parliament is illegal;

That the pretended power of dispensing with laws or the execution of laws by regal authority, as it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is illegal;

That the commission for erecting the late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and all other commissions and courts of like nature, are illegal and pernicious;

That levying money for or to the use of the Crown by pretence of prerogative, without grant of Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal;

That it is the right of the subjects to petition the king, and all commitments and prosecutions for such petitioning are illegal;

That the raising or keeping a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be with consent of Parliament, is against law;"

The English Bill of Rights, 1689
 
Which of the following would have been LEAST likely to agree with the sentiments expressed above?

A
Thomas Hobbes
B
John Locke
C
Montesquieu
D
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The other three argued for limited government. Locke’s (B) writings inspired the Declaration of Independence, Montesquieu (C) advocated separation of powers, and Rousseau (D) wrote about the innate goodness of man. Hobbes, on the other hand, believed most people we incapable of governing themselves and needed a strong monarch to reign them in.
Question 8
Questions 8–10 refer to the passage below:

“I am fully persuaded that we should hear of none of these infantine airs, if girls were allowed to take sufficient exercise, and not confined in close rooms till their muscles are relaxed, and their powers of digestion destroyed. To carry the remark still further, if fear in girls, instead of being cherished, perhaps, created, were treated in the same manner as cowardice in boys, we should quickly see women with more dignified aspects. It is true, they could not then with equal propriety be termed the sweet flowers that smile in the walk of man, but they would be more respectable members of society, and discharge the important duties of life by the light of their own reason. “Educate women like men,” says Rousseau, “and the more they resemble our sex the less power will they have over us.” This is the very point I aim at. I do not wish them to have power over men; but over themselves.

In the same strain have I heard men argue against instructing the poor; for many are the forms that aristocracy assumes. “Teach them to read and write,” say they, “and you take them out of the station assigned them by nature.” An eloquent Frenchman has answered them, I will borrow his sentiments. But they know not, when they make man a brute, that they may expect every instant to see him transformed into a ferocious beast. Without knowledge there can be no morality!"

Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792
 
Ideas, such as the ones in the passage, would have probably NOT been discussed in a favorable manner in

A
coffee shops
B
masonic lodges
C
private academies
D
salons
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Masonic lodges did not admit women. The other locations were centers of Enlightenment thought, and salons (D) were run by women.
Question 9
Questions 8–10 refer to the passage below:

“I am fully persuaded that we should hear of none of these infantine airs, if girls were allowed to take sufficient exercise, and not confined in close rooms till their muscles are relaxed, and their powers of digestion destroyed. To carry the remark still further, if fear in girls, instead of being cherished, perhaps, created, were treated in the same manner as cowardice in boys, we should quickly see women with more dignified aspects. It is true, they could not then with equal propriety be termed the sweet flowers that smile in the walk of man, but they would be more respectable members of society, and discharge the important duties of life by the light of their own reason. “Educate women like men,” says Rousseau, “and the more they resemble our sex the less power will they have over us.” This is the very point I aim at. I do not wish them to have power over men; but over themselves.

In the same strain have I heard men argue against instructing the poor; for many are the forms that aristocracy assumes. “Teach them to read and write,” say they, “and you take them out of the station assigned them by nature.” An eloquent Frenchman has answered them, I will borrow his sentiments. But they know not, when they make man a brute, that they may expect every instant to see him transformed into a ferocious beast. Without knowledge there can be no morality!"

Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792
 
Which of the following documents had the greatest influence on Wollstonecraft?

A
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
B
Leviathan
C
The Spirit of the Laws
D
Two Treatises of Government
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Wollstonecraft was heavily influenced by the French Revolution, which began in 1789, and by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen in particular. Leviathan, written by Thomas Hobbes, had a very negative view of human beings, and The Spirit of the Laws, by Montesquieu, and Two Treatises of Government, by Locke, would have leaned toward Wollstonecraft but did not inspire a direct connection.
Question 10
Questions 8–10 refer to the passage below:

“I am fully persuaded that we should hear of none of these infantine airs, if girls were allowed to take sufficient exercise, and not confined in close rooms till their muscles are relaxed, and their powers of digestion destroyed. To carry the remark still further, if fear in girls, instead of being cherished, perhaps, created, were treated in the same manner as cowardice in boys, we should quickly see women with more dignified aspects. It is true, they could not then with equal propriety be termed the sweet flowers that smile in the walk of man, but they would be more respectable members of society, and discharge the important duties of life by the light of their own reason. “Educate women like men,” says Rousseau, “and the more they resemble our sex the less power will they have over us.” This is the very point I aim at. I do not wish them to have power over men; but over themselves.

In the same strain have I heard men argue against instructing the poor; for many are the forms that aristocracy assumes. “Teach them to read and write,” say they, “and you take them out of the station assigned them by nature.” An eloquent Frenchman has answered them, I will borrow his sentiments. But they know not, when they make man a brute, that they may expect every instant to see him transformed into a ferocious beast. Without knowledge there can be no morality!"

Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792
 
Which of the following would have been most likely to agree with Wollstonecraft?

A
Condorcet
B
Diderot
C
Montesquieu
D
Voltaire
Question 10 Explanation: 
The answer is (A). All the others support women’s rights to an extent, but only Condorcet is considered a true feminist.  
Question 11
Questions 11–12 refer to the passage below:

“In 1794 I was several times in Newgate on visits to persons confined for libel &c — one Sunday in particular I was there when several respectable women were also there — relatives of those I went to see. When the time for leaving the prison arrived we came in a body of nine or ten persons into a large yard which we had to cross — into this yard a number of felons were admitted and they were in such a condition that we were obliged to request the jailer to compel them to tie up their rags so as conceal their bodies which were most indecently exposed and was I have no doubt intentional to alarm the women and extort money from the men. When they had made themselves somewhat decent we came into the yard, and were pressed upon and almost hussled by the felons whose arms and voices demanding money made a frightful noise and alarmed the women. I who understood these matters collected all the halfpence I could and by throwing a few at a time over the heads of the felons set them scrambling swearing all but fighting whilst the women and the rest made their way as quickly as possible across the yard."

Francis Place, political activist, describing his visit to Newgate Prison in the mid-1790s
 
Newgate prison

A
barred female visitors
B
emphasized reform over punishment
C
gave its prisoners little clothing or money
D
housed entire families together
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The passage says female visitors were present, so (A) may be eliminated. The stark conditions of the prison make it clear that reform (B) was not valued, and there is no evidence that families were housed together (D). The passage describes prisoners in rags, chasing after money, so (C) is correct.
Question 12
Questions 11–12 refer to the passage below:

“In 1794 I was several times in Newgate on visits to persons confined for libel &c — one Sunday in particular I was there when several respectable women were also there — relatives of those I went to see. When the time for leaving the prison arrived we came in a body of nine or ten persons into a large yard which we had to cross — into this yard a number of felons were admitted and they were in such a condition that we were obliged to request the jailer to compel them to tie up their rags so as conceal their bodies which were most indecently exposed and was I have no doubt intentional to alarm the women and extort money from the men. When they had made themselves somewhat decent we came into the yard, and were pressed upon and almost hussled by the felons whose arms and voices demanding money made a frightful noise and alarmed the women. I who understood these matters collected all the halfpence I could and by throwing a few at a time over the heads of the felons set them scrambling swearing all but fighting whilst the women and the rest made their way as quickly as possible across the yard."

Francis Place, political activist, describing his visit to Newgate Prison in the mid-1790s
 
At the time, this document would have been used to argue for

A
employment of prisoners
B
improvements in living conditions
C
prostitution reform
D
stricter punishment
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). As a political activist, Francis Place would have argued for prison reform. Employment of prisoners (A) and prostitution reform (C) are possibilities but are not directly stated. Stricter punishment (D) is completely wrong.
Question 13
Questions 13–15 refer to the map below:

The country that fell victim to its neighbors in 1795 was

A
Lithuania
B
Poland
C
Romania
D
Ukraine
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Poland was partitioned three times by Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The final time was in 1795.
Question 14
Questions 13–15 refer to the map below:

Which of the following ruled Russia at the time?

A
Alexander I
B
Catherine the Great
C
Ivan the Terrible
D
Peter the Great
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Catherine the Great ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796. All the other answers were Russian rulers but not in 1795.
Question 15
Questions 13–15 refer to the map below:

Who reconstituted Poland?

A
Francis II
B
Frederick the Great
C
Maximilien Robespierre
D
Napoleon Bonaparte
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Napoleon reconstituted Poland as the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1807. Francis II was the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick the Great was king of Prussia and was one of the people who partitioned Poland prior to 1795. Maximilien Robespierre was the leader of France during the Reign of Terror.
Question 16
Questions 16–18 refer to the following illustration:

The figure on the ground represents

A
the First Estate
B
the Second Estate
C
the Third Estate
D
conquered peoples of the French Empire
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The First Estate (A) is the clergy (on the left). The Second Estate (B) is the nobility (on the right). The Third Estate paid all the taxes in France and had few rights compared to the other two estates.
Question 17
Questions 16–18 refer to the following illustration:

The figure on the ground will be unlikely to get up because of the

A
autocratic rule of Luis XVI
B
lack of organized labor unions
C
restrictions from medieval guilds
D
voting arrangement in the Estates General
Question 17 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Louis XVI (A) considered himself a divine-right monarch but was willing to share power with a legislature. Labor unions (B) were not relevant at this time. Guilds (C) were active, but the figure on the ground could not get up because the First and Second Estate could out vote the Third Estate in the Estates General.
Question 18
Questions 16–18 refer to the following illustration:

The figure was created

A
prior to the French Revolution
B
during the Reign of Terror
C
about the time of the coronation of Napoleon
D
after the fall of Napoleon
Question 18 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The figure’s subject matter is about the causes of the French Revolution. This inequality was abolished by the time of the Reign of Terror (B).
Question 19
Questions 19–20 refer to the following illustration:

The figure above represents

A
the continental system
B
the middle passage
C
slave trade
D
triangle trade
Question 19 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Triangle trade was named as such because the routes to Africa, Great Britain, and North America formed a triangle. The middle passage and slave trade were part of triangle trade but do not represent the entire system. The continental system was the blockade designed by Napoleon to paralyze Great Britain through the destruction of British commerce.
Question 20
Questions 19–20 refer to the following illustration:

Who would have been most likely to criticize triangular trade?

A
Oliver Cromwell
B
King George III
C
Maximilian Robespierre
D
Adam Smith
Question 20 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Mercantilism helped create trade patterns such as the triangular trade across the North Atlantic, in which raw materials were imported to Britain and then processed and redistributed to other colonies. Adam Smith was a sharp critic of all mercantilist policies.
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