AP European History Practice Test: Period 3 (1815–1914)

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Question 1
Questions 1–3 refer to the passage below:

“Main Terms of Emancipation, 1861: Serfs were made free of their landlords. Ex-serfs were then allowed to:

  • Own property
  • Buy land assigned to them from their previous owner’s estates
  • Marry according to their choice
  • Trade freely
  • Sue in courts
  • Vote in local elections
Impressive though these freedoms first looked, it soon became apparent that they had come at a heavy price for the peasants. It was not they, but the landlords, who were the beneficiaries. This should not surprise us: after, it had been the dvoriane who had drafted the emancipation proposals. The compensation that the landowners received was far in advance of the market value of their property. They were also entitled to decide which part of their holdings they would give up. Unsurprisingly, they kept the best land for themselves. The serfs got the leftovers. The data shows that the landlords retained two-thirds of the land while the peasants received only one-third. So limited was the supply of affordable quality land to the peasants that they were reduced to buying narrow strips that proved difficult to maintain and which yielded little food or profit.

Moreover, while the landowners were granted financial compensation for what they gave up, the peasants had to pay for their new property. Since they had no savings, they were advanced 100 per cent mortgages, 80 per cent provided by the State bank and the remaining 20 by the landlords. This appeared a generous offer, but as in any loan transaction the catch was in the repayments. The peasants found themselves saddled with redemption payments that became a lifelong burden that then had to be handed on to their children.”

Michael Lynch, “The Emancipation of the Russian Serfs, 1861: A Charter of Freedom or an Act of Betrayal,” History Review, no. 47 (December 2003)
 
The events described in the passage above occurred during the reign of

A
Alexander II
B
Alexander III
C
Nicholas I
D
Nicholas II
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). This question requires specific knowledge of Russian tsars. Nicholas I did not free the serfs, and the serfs had already been freed by the time of Alexander III and Nicholas II. Nicholas II was significant because he was the last tsar, having been murdered during the Russian Revolution.
Question 2
Questions 1–3 refer to the passage below:

“Main Terms of Emancipation, 1861: Serfs were made free of their landlords. Ex-serfs were then allowed to:

  • Own property
  • Buy land assigned to them from their previous owner’s estates
  • Marry according to their choice
  • Trade freely
  • Sue in courts
  • Vote in local elections
Impressive though these freedoms first looked, it soon became apparent that they had come at a heavy price for the peasants. It was not they, but the landlords, who were the beneficiaries. This should not surprise us: after, it had been the dvoriane who had drafted the emancipation proposals. The compensation that the landowners received was far in advance of the market value of their property. They were also entitled to decide which part of their holdings they would give up. Unsurprisingly, they kept the best land for themselves. The serfs got the leftovers. The data shows that the landlords retained two-thirds of the land while the peasants received only one-third. So limited was the supply of affordable quality land to the peasants that they were reduced to buying narrow strips that proved difficult to maintain and which yielded little food or profit.

Moreover, while the landowners were granted financial compensation for what they gave up, the peasants had to pay for their new property. Since they had no savings, they were advanced 100 per cent mortgages, 80 per cent provided by the State bank and the remaining 20 by the landlords. This appeared a generous offer, but as in any loan transaction the catch was in the repayments. The peasants found themselves saddled with redemption payments that became a lifelong burden that then had to be handed on to their children.”

Michael Lynch, “The Emancipation of the Russian Serfs, 1861: A Charter of Freedom or an Act of Betrayal,” History Review, no. 47 (December 2003)
 
The passage above is concerned mostly with

A
cultural and intellectual history
B
economic and social history
C
political and diplomatic history
D
religious history
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The passage is not at all about culture or intellect (A) nor is it concerned with religion (D). Political history is plausible but diplomatic history (relations with other countries) is not, which rules out (C). The passage is clearly focused on economic and social history.
Question 3
Questions 1–3 refer to the passage below:

“Main Terms of Emancipation, 1861: Serfs were made free of their landlords. Ex-serfs were then allowed to:

  • Own property
  • Buy land assigned to them from their previous owner’s estates
  • Marry according to their choice
  • Trade freely
  • Sue in courts
  • Vote in local elections
Impressive though these freedoms first looked, it soon became apparent that they had come at a heavy price for the peasants. It was not they, but the landlords, who were the beneficiaries. This should not surprise us: after, it had been the dvoriane who had drafted the emancipation proposals. The compensation that the landowners received was far in advance of the market value of their property. They were also entitled to decide which part of their holdings they would give up. Unsurprisingly, they kept the best land for themselves. The serfs got the leftovers. The data shows that the landlords retained two-thirds of the land while the peasants received only one-third. So limited was the supply of affordable quality land to the peasants that they were reduced to buying narrow strips that proved difficult to maintain and which yielded little food or profit.

Moreover, while the landowners were granted financial compensation for what they gave up, the peasants had to pay for their new property. Since they had no savings, they were advanced 100 per cent mortgages, 80 per cent provided by the State bank and the remaining 20 by the landlords. This appeared a generous offer, but as in any loan transaction the catch was in the repayments. The peasants found themselves saddled with redemption payments that became a lifelong burden that then had to be handed on to their children.”

Michael Lynch, “The Emancipation of the Russian Serfs, 1861: A Charter of Freedom or an Act of Betrayal,” History Review, no. 47 (December 2003)
 
Michael Lynch’s thesis

A
contradicts prevailing scholarship on the emancipation of the serfs
B
criticizes prevailing scholarship on the emancipation of the serfs
C
overturns prevailing scholarship on the emancipation of the serfs
D
supports prevailing scholarship on the emancipation of the serfs
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Lynch definitely does not support accepted scholarship (D), which usually says that emancipation was beneficial for the serfs. The title of the article implies that Lynch is critical of accepted scholarship. But nowhere in this excerpt does Lynch actually criticize other historians, so (B) may be eliminated. Likewise, Lynch does not offer conclusive proof that his theory is right and others are wrong. Therefore, (C) may also be eliminated. That leaves (A). Lynch’s thesis runs counter to prevailing scholarship.
Question 4
Questions 4-7 refer to the passage below:

“What happened for the proletarians is surely a good omen for the future of women when their '89 will have rung. By a very simple calculation it is obvious that wealth will increase indefinitely when women (half of the human race) are summoned to bring into social service their intelligence, strength, and ability. This is as easy to understand as that two is double one. But alas! We are not there yet and while waiting for that happy '89 let us note what is happening in 1843.
. . .
Woman is everything in the life of the workers. She is their sole providence if she fails them, everything fails them. Consequently it is said: "It is the woman who makes or unmakes the household," and this is the exact truth; that is why a proverb has been made of it. But what education, what teaching, what direction, what moral or physical development does the woman of the common people receive? None. As a child she is left at the mercy of a mother and grandmother who, themselves, have received no education: one, according to her nature, will be brutal and ill-natured, will beat her and mistreat her for no reason; the other will be weak and unconcerned and will let her do what she wants. (In this as in all that I assert, I am speaking in general; of course I admit that there are numerous exceptions.) The poor child will be raised in the midst of the most shocking contradictions-one day irritated by blows and unfair treatment-the next day mollified, spoiled by no less pernicious overindulgence.

Instead of sending her to school, she will be kept in the house in preference to her brothers, because one makes better use of her in the household, either to rock the babies, to run errands, watch the soup, etc. At twelve years of age she is apprenticed; there she continues to be exploited by her mistress and often is as maltreated as she was at home with her parents.”

Flora Tristan, “l’Union Ouvriere,” 1843
 
According to Tristan, the wave of feminism in France is in the spirit of

A
the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire
B
the French Revolution
C
the industrial revolution
D
Napoleon’s liberation of the serfs
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The French Revolution began in 1789 and is alluded to in the first paragraph.
Question 5
Questions 4-7 refer to the passage below:

“What happened for the proletarians is surely a good omen for the future of women when their '89 will have rung. By a very simple calculation it is obvious that wealth will increase indefinitely when women (half of the human race) are summoned to bring into social service their intelligence, strength, and ability. This is as easy to understand as that two is double one. But alas! We are not there yet and while waiting for that happy '89 let us note what is happening in 1843.
. . .
Woman is everything in the life of the workers. She is their sole providence if she fails them, everything fails them. Consequently it is said: "It is the woman who makes or unmakes the household," and this is the exact truth; that is why a proverb has been made of it. But what education, what teaching, what direction, what moral or physical development does the woman of the common people receive? None. As a child she is left at the mercy of a mother and grandmother who, themselves, have received no education: one, according to her nature, will be brutal and ill-natured, will beat her and mistreat her for no reason; the other will be weak and unconcerned and will let her do what she wants. (In this as in all that I assert, I am speaking in general; of course I admit that there are numerous exceptions.) The poor child will be raised in the midst of the most shocking contradictions-one day irritated by blows and unfair treatment-the next day mollified, spoiled by no less pernicious overindulgence.

Instead of sending her to school, she will be kept in the house in preference to her brothers, because one makes better use of her in the household, either to rock the babies, to run errands, watch the soup, etc. At twelve years of age she is apprenticed; there she continues to be exploited by her mistress and often is as maltreated as she was at home with her parents.”

Flora Tristan, “l’Union Ouvriere,” 1843
 
According to Tristan, mothers and grandmothers

A
encourage social mobility
B
provide girls with an education their brothers receive in school
C
restrict girls’ career opportunities
D
teach girls to be independent thinkers
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). There is no reference to social mobility (A) and it is implied that girls will never gain social mobility if current child-rearing practices do not change. Girls do not receive any kind of education (B) except in housekeeping, and the beatings definitely do not encourage independent thinking (D). Girls are raised and then sent out to do household work, and therefore, have limited career opportunities.
Question 6
Questions 4-7 refer to the passage below:

“What happened for the proletarians is surely a good omen for the future of women when their '89 will have rung. By a very simple calculation it is obvious that wealth will increase indefinitely when women (half of the human race) are summoned to bring into social service their intelligence, strength, and ability. This is as easy to understand as that two is double one. But alas! We are not there yet and while waiting for that happy '89 let us note what is happening in 1843.
. . .
Woman is everything in the life of the workers. She is their sole providence if she fails them, everything fails them. Consequently it is said: "It is the woman who makes or unmakes the household," and this is the exact truth; that is why a proverb has been made of it. But what education, what teaching, what direction, what moral or physical development does the woman of the common people receive? None. As a child she is left at the mercy of a mother and grandmother who, themselves, have received no education: one, according to her nature, will be brutal and ill-natured, will beat her and mistreat her for no reason; the other will be weak and unconcerned and will let her do what she wants. (In this as in all that I assert, I am speaking in general; of course I admit that there are numerous exceptions.) The poor child will be raised in the midst of the most shocking contradictions-one day irritated by blows and unfair treatment-the next day mollified, spoiled by no less pernicious overindulgence.

Instead of sending her to school, she will be kept in the house in preference to her brothers, because one makes better use of her in the household, either to rock the babies, to run errands, watch the soup, etc. At twelve years of age she is apprenticed; there she continues to be exploited by her mistress and often is as maltreated as she was at home with her parents.”

Flora Tristan, “l’Union Ouvriere,” 1843
 
The apprenticeship referred to in the third paragraph is

A
in domestic work
B
in manual labor
C
in skilled trades
D
impossible to determine based on the information given
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Apprenticeships would normally be in skilled trades, but Tristan uses figurative language here. She does not mean literally an apprenticeship, so (C) may be eliminated. Manual labor would be hard, unskilled physical labor for men, so (B) may also be eliminated. Tristan refers to the practice of poor girls being sent by their families to live with and work for middle class families as servants. Therefore, the answer is (A). “Domestic work” is synonym for housework.
Question 7
Questions 4-7 refer to the passage below:

“What happened for the proletarians is surely a good omen for the future of women when their '89 will have rung. By a very simple calculation it is obvious that wealth will increase indefinitely when women (half of the human race) are summoned to bring into social service their intelligence, strength, and ability. This is as easy to understand as that two is double one. But alas! We are not there yet and while waiting for that happy '89 let us note what is happening in 1843.
. . .
Woman is everything in the life of the workers. She is their sole providence if she fails them, everything fails them. Consequently it is said: "It is the woman who makes or unmakes the household," and this is the exact truth; that is why a proverb has been made of it. But what education, what teaching, what direction, what moral or physical development does the woman of the common people receive? None. As a child she is left at the mercy of a mother and grandmother who, themselves, have received no education: one, according to her nature, will be brutal and ill-natured, will beat her and mistreat her for no reason; the other will be weak and unconcerned and will let her do what she wants. (In this as in all that I assert, I am speaking in general; of course I admit that there are numerous exceptions.) The poor child will be raised in the midst of the most shocking contradictions-one day irritated by blows and unfair treatment-the next day mollified, spoiled by no less pernicious overindulgence.

Instead of sending her to school, she will be kept in the house in preference to her brothers, because one makes better use of her in the household, either to rock the babies, to run errands, watch the soup, etc. At twelve years of age she is apprenticed; there she continues to be exploited by her mistress and often is as maltreated as she was at home with her parents.”

Flora Tristan, “l’Union Ouvriere,” 1843
 
Tristan may best be described as a

A
liberal
B
utopian socialist
C
Marxist socialist
D
revisionist socialist
Question 7 Explanation: 
The answer is (B). While Tristan refers to the French Revolution, she does not refer to feminism in terms of a world-wide revolution like Marx (C). Nor does she does she advocate for socialism through labor unions and legislation, which was the revisionist socialist (D) platform. Tristan could be considered a liberal (A), but she is more accurately placed in the category of utopian socialist (B). 
Question 8
Questions 8–11 refer to the following illustration:

The painting

A
celebrates the achievements of the Industrial Revolution
B
criticizes the environmental impact of the Industrial Revolution
C
exalts job opportunities
D
exaggerates technological achievements
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The artist deliberately shows the town as dark, dingy, and polluted. He is, therefore, highly critical of the environmental impact of the Industrial Revolution. Answer choice (A) is the opposite answer. The painting does not depict job opportunities (C), and the tone of the painting does not praise technology (D).
Question 9
Questions 8–11 refer to the following illustration:

The setting is most likely

A
Britain
B
France
C
Germany
D
Russia
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Britain was the first country to industrialize and had a lot of pollution due to factories burning coal. Russia was the last country to industrialize among the four choices.
Question 10
Questions 8–11 refer to the following illustration:

Which of the following innovations would have been used to transport goods in and out of this factory town at the time of the painting?

A
automobile and steamship
B
railroad and sailboat
C
railroad and steamship
D
sailboat and steamship
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The nineteenth century was not yet an age of automobiles, so (A) may be eliminated. It was also past the age of sailboats, so (B) and (D) may be eliminated. The bridge could be used by a railroad, and the large river or canal could be used by steamships.
Question 11
Questions 8–11 refer to the following illustration:

The painting is in which of the following styles?

A
Impressionism
B
Neo-Classicism
C
Realism
D
Romanticism
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Impressionism is characterized by small, visible brush strokes, which are visible in this painting. Impressionism later split into Post-Impressionism, which featured larger brush strokes, and Realism, which looks like a photograph. The painting does not glorify the subject matter, which eliminates Romanticism, and it does not feature anything that resembles ancient Greco-Roman art or architecture, which eliminates this answer.
Question 12
Questions 12–13 refer to the passage below:

“Take up the White Man’s burden,
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile,
to serve your captives’ need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.”

This selection is from Rudyard Kipling’s poem, The White Man’s Burden (1899)
 
The passage above is used to justify

A
colonialism
B
imperialism
C
nationalism
D
racism
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). While all the other concepts relate to the poem, the poem’s clear purpose is to justify imperialism, which is the influence over and rule of other peoples through the diplomacy, intimidation, and military force.
Question 13
Questions 12–13 refer to the passage below:

“Take up the White Man’s burden,
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile,
to serve your captives’ need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.”

This selection is from Rudyard Kipling’s poem, The White Man’s Burden (1899)
 
Which of following would have been most likely to disagree with the main point of the poem?

A
Otto von Bismarck
B
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
C
Edmund Burke
D
John Stuart Mill
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Mill was a liberal and believed in the equality of all human beings. Otto von Bismarck was the German chancellor who led the partition of Africa. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was the second emperor of France and was a practitioner of imperialism. Edmund Burke was a leader of the Whig party and a conservative political theorist in late eighteenth century Britain.
Question 14
Questions 14–15 refer to the following illustration:

The painting portrays Garibaldi’s conquest of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and reflects

A
imperialism and nationalism
B
imperialism and Romanticism
C
nationalism and Romanticism
D
socialism and Romanticism
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). While the image shows a “conquest,” it is of Italians conquering other Italians, which means imperialism is wrong. Thus, (A) and (B) may be eliminated. The image is, of course, Romantic, because it glorifies and exaggerates the conquest. It emphasizes Italian pride, not socialist ideas, so (D) is wrong.
Question 15
Questions 14–15 refer to the following illustration:

The painting is most likely set

A
during the Napoleonic wars
B
during a fascist uprising
C
just prior to the unification of Italy
D
on the eve of World War I
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The Napoleonic wars is completely wrong and the incorrect time period, the Napoleonic Wars having happened in the early nineteenth century. Fascism emphasizes nationalism, but fascism would not become popular until after World War I. The eve of World War I is close, as it was also a nationalist period, but Garibaldi was active in the unification of Italy.
Question 16
Questions 16–18 refer to the passage below:

“Pervading all nature we may see at work a stern discipline, which is a little cruel that it may be very kind. That state of universal warfare maintained throughout the lower creation, to the great perplexity of many worthy people, is at bottom the most merciful provision which the circumstances admit of. The poverty of the incapable, the distresses that come upon the imprudent, the starvation of the idle, and those shoulderings aside of the weak by the strong, which leave so many "in shallows and in miseries," are the decrees of a large, farseeing benevolence. It seems hard that an unskilfulness which with all its efforts he cannot overcome, should entail hunger upon the artisan. It seems hard that a labourer incapacitated by sickness from competing with his stronger fellows, should have to bear the resulting privations. It seems hard that widows and orphans should be left to struggle for life or death. Nevertheless, when regarded not separately, but in connection with the interests of universal humanity, these harsh fatalities are seen to be full of the highest beneficence — the same beneficence which brings to early graves the children of diseased parents, and singles out the low-spirited, the intemperate, and the debilitated as the victims of an epidemic.”

Herbert Spencer, “Survival of the Fittest Applied to Human Kind” (1851)
 
The passage above is a statement endorsing

A
capitalism
B
communism
C
social Darwinism
D
socialism
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Social Darwinism is the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals and that those who are unfit should be left to die. Communists and socialists would reject the passage. Spencer certainly supported capitalism, but the passage is more directly about social Darwinism.
Question 17
Questions 16–18 refer to the passage below:

“Pervading all nature we may see at work a stern discipline, which is a little cruel that it may be very kind. That state of universal warfare maintained throughout the lower creation, to the great perplexity of many worthy people, is at bottom the most merciful provision which the circumstances admit of. The poverty of the incapable, the distresses that come upon the imprudent, the starvation of the idle, and those shoulderings aside of the weak by the strong, which leave so many "in shallows and in miseries," are the decrees of a large, farseeing benevolence. It seems hard that an unskilfulness which with all its efforts he cannot overcome, should entail hunger upon the artisan. It seems hard that a labourer incapacitated by sickness from competing with his stronger fellows, should have to bear the resulting privations. It seems hard that widows and orphans should be left to struggle for life or death. Nevertheless, when regarded not separately, but in connection with the interests of universal humanity, these harsh fatalities are seen to be full of the highest beneficence — the same beneficence which brings to early graves the children of diseased parents, and singles out the low-spirited, the intemperate, and the debilitated as the victims of an epidemic.”

Herbert Spencer, “Survival of the Fittest Applied to Human Kind” (1851)
 
How would Spencer have felt about charity?

A
Charity should be given to everyone who is poor
B
Charity should only go to the deserving poor
C
Charity should be given to orphans and widow
D
Charity should go to no one
Question 17 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Social Darwinists believed all people should be left to fend for themselves, without help from others, and those who were not “fit” should be left to die.
Question 18
Questions 16–18 refer to the passage below:

“Pervading all nature we may see at work a stern discipline, which is a little cruel that it may be very kind. That state of universal warfare maintained throughout the lower creation, to the great perplexity of many worthy people, is at bottom the most merciful provision which the circumstances admit of. The poverty of the incapable, the distresses that come upon the imprudent, the starvation of the idle, and those shoulderings aside of the weak by the strong, which leave so many "in shallows and in miseries," are the decrees of a large, farseeing benevolence. It seems hard that an unskilfulness which with all its efforts he cannot overcome, should entail hunger upon the artisan. It seems hard that a labourer incapacitated by sickness from competing with his stronger fellows, should have to bear the resulting privations. It seems hard that widows and orphans should be left to struggle for life or death. Nevertheless, when regarded not separately, but in connection with the interests of universal humanity, these harsh fatalities are seen to be full of the highest beneficence — the same beneficence which brings to early graves the children of diseased parents, and singles out the low-spirited, the intemperate, and the debilitated as the victims of an epidemic.”

Herbert Spencer, “Survival of the Fittest Applied to Human Kind” (1851)
 
Which of the following would have most likely agreed with Spencer?

A
Charles Darwin
B
John Stuart Mill
C
Friedrich Nietzsche
D
Robert Owen
Question 18 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Charles Darwin never intended for his theories to be applied to human society. John Stuart Mill was a liberal and Robert Owen was a socialist. Both believed government should help people in need. Friedrich Nietzsche, on the other hand, believed human beings could be divided into the “overmen” and the “herd” and that the overmen should rule over the herd.
Question 19
In 1864, Pope Pius IX issued the Syllabus of Errors, a condemnation of several modernist ideas. The passage below is a partial list of statements condemned by the Pope. Questions 19–20 refer to this passage.

“Human reason, without any reference whatsoever to God, is the sole arbiter of truth and falsehood, and of good and evil.” (No. 3)

“All the truths of religion proceed from the innate strength of human reason; hence reason is the ultimate standard by which man can and ought to arrive at the knowledge of all truths of every kind.” (No. 4)

“In the present day it is no longer expedient that the Catholic religion should be held as the only religion of the State, to the exclusion of all other forms of worship.” (No. 77)

“Protestantism is nothing more than another form of the same true Christian religion, in which form it is given to please God equally as in the Catholic Church.” (No. 18).

“The Church ought to be separated from the State, and the State from the Church.” (No. 55)

“Every man is free to embrace and profess that religion which, guided by the light of reason, he shall consider true.” (No. 15)

“It has been wisely decided by law, in some Catholic countries, that persons coming to reside therein shall enjoy the public exercise of their own peculiar worship.” (No. 78)

“The Roman Pontiff can, and ought to, reconcile himself, and come to terms with, progress, liberalism and modern civilization.” (No. 80)
 
The passage above was a reaction to the Catholic Church’s loss of stature in light of

A
capitalism and science
B
capitalism and secularism
C
science and secularism
D
secularism and socialism
Question 19 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Numbers 3 and 4 condemn reason, which indicates that the church was hostile to science. Therefore, the answer must be (A) or (C). The passage does not mention capitalism, but Numbers 77 and 55 clearly condemn secularism as it condemns separation between church and state.
Question 20
In 1864, Pope Pius IX issued the Syllabus of Errors, a condemnation of several modernist ideas. The passage below is a partial list of statements condemned by the Pope. Questions 19–20 refer to this passage.

“Human reason, without any reference whatsoever to God, is the sole arbiter of truth and falsehood, and of good and evil.” (No. 3)

“All the truths of religion proceed from the innate strength of human reason; hence reason is the ultimate standard by which man can and ought to arrive at the knowledge of all truths of every kind.” (No. 4)

“In the present day it is no longer expedient that the Catholic religion should be held as the only religion of the State, to the exclusion of all other forms of worship.” (No. 77)

“Protestantism is nothing more than another form of the same true Christian religion, in which form it is given to please God equally as in the Catholic Church.” (No. 18).

“The Church ought to be separated from the State, and the State from the Church.” (No. 55)

“Every man is free to embrace and profess that religion which, guided by the light of reason, he shall consider true.” (No. 15)

“It has been wisely decided by law, in some Catholic countries, that persons coming to reside therein shall enjoy the public exercise of their own peculiar worship.” (No. 78)

“The Roman Pontiff can, and ought to, reconcile himself, and come to terms with, progress, liberalism and modern civilization.” (No. 80)
 
Which of the following statements would best coalesce with the Syllabus of Errors?

A
Human reason deepens one's faith in God
B
All Christians are equal in the eyes of God
C
The pope is infallible on matters of faith and morality
D
Representative democracy is the best form of government
Question 20 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Numbers 3 and 4 condemn reason (A). Number 18 condemns Protestants, which eliminates answer (B). Numbers 77 and 55 clearly condemn separation between church and state. They imply the church-supported monarch would be better, which eliminates (D). Number 80 hints that the pope is infallible on matters of faith and morality, which would be confirmed at the First Vatican Council in 1869–70.
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