AP Human Geography Practice Test: Cultural Patterns & Processes

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Question 1
Folk culture spreads primarily through

A
contagious diffusion
B
hierarchical diffusion
C
relocation diffusion
D
spontaneous diffusion
E
stimulus diffusion
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Folk culture diffuses slowly and is usually tied to ethnicity. Ethnic groups bring their cultural traditions with them when they migrate. Therefore, the answer is relocation diffusion. The other four forms of diffusion are associated with popular culture.
Question 2
Compared to folk culture, which of the following is true of popular culture?

A
Popular culture changes slowly over time.
B
Popular culture encourages regional diversity.
C
Popular culture represents cultural homogeneity.
D
Popular culture emphasizes non-Western values.
E
Popular culture distinguishes a minority group from a larger population.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Popular culture is homogeneous because it tends to be adopted by a variety of ethnic groups and makes them more alike. It also encourages ethnic groups to adopt Western culture.
Question 3
Which of the following is true of both the Amish and soccer?

A
Both are examples of folk culture
B
Both are examples of popular culture
C
Both began as folk culture and evolved in popular culture
D
Both began as folk culture and one evolved into popular culture
E
Both began as popular culture and one evolved into folk culture
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The Amish religion is practiced in isolated areas of the United States, while soccer is the most popular organized sport in the world, which means (A), (B), and (C) may be eliminated. The Amish religion began in isolated areas of eastern France and Switzerland. Soccer began in an English village. Thus, the answer is (D).
Question 4
A cluster of Tidewater houses is surrounded by a settlement of cape cods in the American Midwest. What can you conclude?

A
The cluster of homes was built by people from the New England states, but the larger settlement was established by people from the Mid-Atlantic states.
B
The cluster of homes was built by people from the New England states, but the larger settlement was established by people from Southern states.
C
The cluster of homes was built by people from the Mid-Atlantic states, but the larger settlement was established by people from Southern states.
D
The cluster of homes was built by people from the Southern states, but the larger settlement was established by people from the New England states.
E
The cluster of homes was built by people from the Southern states, but the larger settlement was established by people from the Mid-Atlantic states.
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Tidewater homes originated in the southeastern states, and Cape Cods originated in New England.
Question 5
Which of the following is NOT a Romance language?

A
English
B
French
C
Portuguese
D
Romanian
E
Spanish
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). English is Germanic, not Romantic.
Question 6
Which of the following is an INCORRECT grouping of a language family and a language?

A
Afro-Asiatic — Berber — Hindi
B
Afro-Asiatic — Semitic — Arabic
C
Indo-European — Balto-Slavic — Russian
D
Indo-European — Germanic — English
E
Sino-Tibetan — Chinese — Mandarin
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Hindi is part of the Indo-European family.
Question 7
____________ is to the United States as ____________ is to Canada.

A
English, French
B
English, Spanish
C
French, Spanish
D
French, English
E
Spanish, French
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). English is the most common language in the United States, so one might be tempted to answer (A). However, French is not the most common language in Canada — it is the second most common language in Canada. Therefore, the answer is (E), because Spanish is the second most common language in the United States.
Question 8
Which of the following is NOT a lingua franca?

A
English in East Asia
B
French in North Africa
C
Hebrew in the Persian Gulf
D
Spanish among Native Americans in South America
E
Swahili in East Africa
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). A lingua franca is a language that is adopted as a common language between speakers whose native languages are different. The Persian Gulf area is predominantly Muslim, not Jewish, so Hebrew is not a lingua franca in this area.
Question 9
The world’s three major monotheistic religions originated in which of the following regions?

A
East Africa
B
Eastern Europe
C
Southern Europe
D
South Asia
E
Southwest Asia
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are three monotheistic religions. All three began in Southwest Asia, also known as the Middle East.
Question 10
Which of the following are universalizing religions?

I.    Buddhism

II.   The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

III.  Hinduism

IV.  Islam

V.   Judaism

VI.  Roman Catholicism

A
I and III
B
III and V
C
I, III, and IV
D
II, V, and VI
E
I, II, IV, VI
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). A universalizing religion is one that states that it applies to all of the people in the world, and is therefore always looking to convert people in order to gain new followers. Hinduism is an ethnic religion, which eliminates (A), (B), and (C). Judaism is also an ethnic religion, which eliminates (B) again and (D). All four religions in (E) are universalizing.
Question 11
Alignment of cities to cardinal directions is a religious tradition in

A
China
B
Egypt
C
India
D
Indonesia
E
Mexico
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A) and is a reference to feng shui.
Question 12
A pilgrim to Mecca is most likely to be a

A
Buddhist
B
Christian
C
Hindu
D
Jewish
E
Muslim
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). Making a pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the five pillars of Islam.
Question 13
Which of the following is a centripetal force in a state?

A
Balkanization
B
Linguistic diversity
C
National songs and symbols
D
Religious differences
E
Uneven development
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Centripetal forces bring people together. All the other answers are centrifugal forces. Balkanization (A) is the breakdown of a state, often violently, into separate parts, and is therefore, the most incorrect answer.
Question 14
Which of the following pairs is INCORRECT?

A
Indonesia — Buddhism
B
Irish — Roman Catholic
C
Pakistan — Islam
D
Russian — Orthodox Christian
E
Sweden — Lutheranism
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Indonesia has more Muslims than any other country in the world.
Question 15
The “separate but equal” doctrine was legally established by

A
Dred Scott v. Sandford
B
Plessy v. Ferguson
C
Brown v. Board of Education
D
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
E
Popular sovereignty
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). “Separate but equal” was established after the Civil War, which eliminates (A), (D), and (E). Plessy v. Ferguson is the correct answer. Brown v. the Board of Education overturned Plessy in public schools.
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