AP Human Geography Practice Test: Political Organization of Space

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Question 1
The boundary between the United States and Canada is both

A
ethnic and religious
B
ethnic and geometric
C
geometric and religious
D
geometric and physical
E
linguistic and religious
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Most of the U.S.-Canadian border is a geometric boundary — a straight line from the Lake of the Woods to Puget Sound and another straight line separating Alaska from the Yukon. The border is physical as it follows the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River to the northern tip of New York, and then becomes a geometric boundary again. Therefore, the correct answer is geometric and physical. One could make a case for a linguistic boundary because French is spoken in Quebec, but answer (E) would require there to be a religious boundary as well, which there is not.
Question 2
Two different ethnicities are most likely to come into conflict when they are separated by a(n)

A
enclave
B
frontier
C
rimland
D
shatterbelt
E
wall
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). A shatterbelt is a region that is caught between colliding external cultural/political forces. These regions are under persistent stress and they are often fragmented by aggressive rivals.
Question 3
Chile is most commonly thought of as a(n) ____________ state.

A
compact
B
elongated
C
fragmented
D
perforated
E
prorupted
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Chile is long and narrow, and therefore, an elongated state.
Question 4
A state the divides power between a central government and several regional governments has a ____________ form of government.

A
compact
B
confederal
C
fragmented
D
federal
E
unitary
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). “Compact” and “fragmented” describe the shapes of states, not forms of government, so (A) and (C) may be eliminated. Confederal states (C) place most power in regional governments. Unitary states (E) place all or almost all power in a central government.
Question 5
Which of the following is in the correct order in Europe beginning furthest in the past and ending with the most recent?

A
City-states, nation-states, Roman Empire
B
City-states, Roman Empire, nation-states
C
Nation-states, city-states, Roman empire
D
Roman Empire, city-states, nation-states
E
Roman Empire, nation-states, city-states
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The first states were city-states. Therefore, (C), (D), and (E) may be eliminated. The Roman Empire devolved into several independent kingdoms, so (B) is the correct answer.
Question 6
European sought colonies in the sixteenth though the nineteenth centuries for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

A
captive markets
B
egalitarianism
C
nationalism
D
raw materials
E
religion
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The incentives behind colonization may be summarized as “God, gold, and glory.” “God” eliminates (E); “gold” eliminates (A) and (D); and “glory” eliminates (C). That leaves egalitarianism, which is a belief in the equality of all people.
Question 7
Which of the following has a forward capital?

I.     Brazil

II.    Canada

III.   Mexico

IV.   United States

A
I and III
B
I and IV
C
II and III
D
I, II, and IV
E
II, III, and IV
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). A forward capital is a capital city relocated for political, economic, cultural, or strategic reasons. Brazil moved its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia, and the United States moved its capital from Philadelphia to New York then back to Philadelphia before building Washington, D.C. Therefore, the correct answer is Brazil and the United States.
Question 8
Which of the following is best described as a nation-state?

A
Cyprus
B
Japan
C
South Africa
D
United Kingdom
E
United States
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B), since almost everyone who lives in Japan is of Japanese ancestry. Cyprus and the United Kingdom are both multinational states; the United States is a multiethnic state and South Africa could be considered multinational or multiethnic.
Question 9
Which of the following is best described as a multi-ethnic state?

A
Canada
B
Denmark
C
Iraq
D
Ireland
E
United States
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). Denmark and Ireland are both nation states because their dominant ethnicities match their nationalities. Iraq is a multinational state because the large presence of Kurds in northern Iraq who want independence. Canada could be considered multiethnic, but some Native Canadians and French speakers have strong feelings of nationalism and would consider Canada to be a multinational state. Therefore, the United States is the best answer.
Question 10
Which of the following is best described as a multi-national state?

A
Australia
B
Belgium
C
Korea
D
Poland
E
Saudi Arabia
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Belgium is fracturing into Flanders and Wallonia, and is, therefore, a multinational state. Australia is a multiethnic state. Korea is a multistate nation. Poland and Saudi Arabia are both nation states.
Question 11
Which of the following is best described as a multi-state nation?

A
France
B
Israel
C
Korea
D
Russia
E
United States
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Koreans are a nationality divided between two states — North and South Korea. France is a nation state; Russia could be considered a nation state or a multiethnic state; Israel is a multinational state; the United States is a multiethnic state.
Question 12
Which of the following is NOT a supranational organization?

A
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
B
The European Union (EU)
C
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
D
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
E
The Organization of American States (OAS)
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). NAFTA is a treaty, not a supranational organization.
Question 13
Which of the following is an example of a devolved government since 1990?

A
Brazil
B
China
C
South Africa
D
United Kingdom
E
Yugoslavia
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The United Kingdom created regional parliaments for Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland after 1990, which is an example of devolution. Yugoslavia skipped the devolution stage after the fall of Communism and became several separate states after two bitter civil wars.
Question 14
The provisions of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea set laws, regulate use, and use any resource in which of the following zones?

A
The continental shelf
B
Exclusive economic zones
C
Internal waters
D
Twelve-nautical-mile territorial sea zone
E
Two-hundred-nautical-miles off the coast of a state
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The Law of the Sea gives states sovereignty over waters up to twelve nautical miles from their coast. Answers (B) and (E) are related to economic rights, which extend up to two hundred miles off the coast of state.
Question 15

The map above illustrates

A
an elongated state
B
a prorupted state
C
gerrymandering
D
a rimland
E
a zone of disamenity
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Gerrymandering is the selective alternation of electoral lines to give one party or group an electoral advantage. “Elongated” and “prorupted” are terms used to describe the shapes of states. A rimland is a peripheral area of a country or region, and zone of disamenity is a reference of urban geography.
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