AP Human Geography Practice Test: Industrialization & Economic Development

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Question 1
Which of the following has a positive correlation with the Human Development Index?

A
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
B
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita
C
infant mortality rate
D
natural increase rate
E
percentage of people employed in agriculture
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). As human development increases, both the natural increase rate and the infant mortality rate decline, which means they have negative relationships. The percentage of people employed in agriculture also declines as machines replace human beings and as modern farming techniques increase crop yields. GDP is a tempting answer, but countries like China and India have high GDPs and low standards of living compared to most European countries. GDP per capita, however, adjusts for the change in population and is the correct answer.
Question 2
A country’s literacy rate has a positive correlation with all of the following EXCEPT

A
birthrate
B
energy consumption
C
per capita income
D
percentage of female employment
E
standard of living
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). When women stay in school longer, they tend to have future children, so birthrate is the answer.
Question 3
Which of the following is NOT part of the Gender Inequality Index (GII)?

A
The percentage of seats held by women in the national legislature.
B
The percentage of women in the labor force compared to men.
C
The percentage of women who have completed high school.
D
The number of women who die per hundred thousand births.
E
The number of children born to each woman per thousand women.
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). While a high birthrate usually indicates a severe level of gender inequality, there is not always a relationship between the two. This question requires memorizing the variables that factor into the Gender Inequality Index.
Question 4
Which of the following is a secondary economic activity?

A
A lumberjack chops down a tree.
B
A factory turns the wood into a table.
C
A furniture store advertises a sale on tables.
D
A salesperson sells the table at a furniture store.
E
A geographer makes a map of furniture sales in a metropolitan region.
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B) because the secondary sector involves manufacturing. The primary sector involves extracting natural resources from the earth (A). Selling a product (C & D) falls into the tertiary sector, and data management of those sales is in the quaternary sector (E).
Question 5
A country that is developing its infrastructure is in which of the following stages of Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth?

A
Traditional society
B
Pre-conditions of take-off
C
Take-off
D
Drive to maturity
E
Age of mass consumption
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B) and requires memorizing the Rostow model.
Question 6
The economic effects of nineteenth-century colonialism on the present-day trade patterns can best be explained by which of the following models?

A
Hoyt’s sector model
B
Richter Scale of Cultural Development
C
Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth
D
Von Thünen’s land-use model
E
Wallerstein’s World System Theory
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). The Hoyt sector model relates to urban geography, and Von Thünen’s land-use model relates to agricultural geography, which means those answers can be eliminated. The Rostow model is wrong because colonialism disrupts the natural pattern of industrialization. The Richter Scale of Cultural Development was from the television show Star Trek. Wallerstein’s World System’s Theory divides the world into core nations and periphery nations, which closely parallels neocolonial ideas.
Question 7
Which of the following is the correct sequence of industrialization?

A
Africa, continental Europe, Great Britain, Latin America
B
continental Europe, Great Britain, Africa, Latin America
C
continental Europe, Great Britain, Latin America, Africa
D
Great Britain, continental Europe, Africa, Latin America
E
Great Britain, continental Europe, Latin America, Africa
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and Africa has only recently industrialized.
Question 8
An industry would most likely locate near the source of its raw materials if it was a

A
bulk-reducing industry
B
bulk-gaining industry
C
footloose industry
D
labor-intensive industry
E
single-market manufacturer
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Bulk-reducing industries locate close to their raw materials because transporting unnecessary bulk is costly. Bulk-gaining industries are close to their markets for this same reason. Footloose industries can locate anywhere because they do not change bulk. Labor-intensive industries usually locate wherever labor costs are inexpensive. Single-market manufacturers are only sold in one market, and are, therefore, usually sold as close to the market as possible.
Question 9
Which of the following industries will most likely locate closest to its market?

A
automobile assembly
B
copper smelting
C
ethanol production
D
telemarketing
E
textile manufacturing
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A) because automobile manufacturing is a bulk-gaining industry. Copper smelting and ethanol production are both bulk-reducing, so they would locate close to their raw materials. Telemarketing is a footloose industry and can locate anywhere because it does not change bulk. Textile manufacturing is a labor-intensive industry and will usually locate wherever labor is least expensive.
Question 10
A multinational corporation would be most likely to use which of the following sequences when transporting a large supply of manufactured goods to several American markets?

A
airplane, train, truck
B
airplane, truck, train
C
ship, airplane, truck
D
ship, train, truck
E
ship, truck, train
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). A large quantity goods would be transported via ship because an airplane would require several trips, which would then increase transportation costs. Knowing that fact eliminates answers (A) and (B). Answer (C) is illogical for the same reason; also, airplanes and ships are not normally used together. Once a ship arrives in a port, its cargo may be put onto trains that move the cargo to distribution centers all over the county. From there, goods are put onto trucks for delivery to stores.
Question 11
Which of the following is an example of agglomeration?

A
Deindustrialization of the rustbelt
B
Factories next to an interstate highway
C
Offices in a business park
D
Outsourcing of a labor-intensive industry
E
Senior citizens migrating to a sunbelt community
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Agglomeration involves the clustering of similar businesses in the same area.
Question 12
Which of the following environmental problems do most scientists link to carbon monoxide emissions?

I.     Acid rain

II.    The greenhouse effect

III.   Ozone depletion

IV.   Smog accumulation

A
I, II
B
II, III
C
I, II, III
D
I, II, IV
E
II, III, IV
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Ozone depletion is linked to chlorofluorocarbons, which eliminates all answers except (A) and (D). Smog is linked to carbon monoxide emissions, so (D) is the answer.
Question 13
Maquiladoras are located in northern Mexico because

A
the Mexican government subsidizes them
B
labor costs are lower in northern Mexico than in southern Mexico
C
transportation costs are lower in Mexico than in the United States
D
more natural resources can be found in northern Mexico than in southern Mexico
E
manufacturers can reduce labor costs with minimal increases in transportation costs
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (E). Answers (A), (B), and (C) are completely false. Answer (D) is plausible depending on the industry, but the correct answer is (E). Jobs are outsourced to Mexico because Mexican workers accept lower wages than American workers, and the factories are located just across the border — as opposed to further away — to reduce transportation costs.
Question 14
Which of the following has been an effect of deindustrialization of regions like the English Midlands and the North American Manufacturing Belt?

A
The decline of labor unions
B
A decrease in the percentage of women in the labor force
C
The formation of free trade associations
D
A rapid increase in air quality
E
A return to primary sector employment
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A) because most of the outsourced jobs were in unionized factories. As high-paying jobs were outsourced, men disproportionately lost jobs and more families became two-income families, which eliminates (B). Free trade associations (C) were a cause of deindustrialization, not an effect. Air quality may have improved, but it has not improved rapidly, so (D) is wrong. People are not going back to farming or other primary-sector employment, so (E) is wrong too.
Question 15
Which of the following relates LEAST to the global economy and global trade?

A
Exclusive economic zones
B
The International Monetary Fund (IMF)
C
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
D
The World Bank
E
The World Trade Organization (WTO)
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). All of the other choices encourage global trade. An exclusive economic zone is an area of coastal water and seabed within a certain distance of a country’s coastline over which a country claims the exclusive rights to all economic activities.
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