AP US History Practice Test: Period 2 (1607–1754)

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Question 1
Questions 1-3 refer to the following passage by John Winthrop (1630):

“…for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eies of all people are uppon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his present help from us, wee shall be made a story and a byword through the world, wee shall open the mouthes of enemies to speake evill of the wayes of god and all professours for Gods sake; wee shall shame the faces of many of gods worthy servants, and cause theire prayers to be turned into Cursses upon us till wee be consumed out of the good land whether wee are going…”

Why did Winthrop say the Puritans must build a city upon a hill?

A
In order to have a more defensible position in case of an attack by indigenous peoples.
B
In order to build a light house to help approaching ships navigate.
C
In order to serve as a religious inspiration to others.
D
In order to concentrate evil and sin and then separate it from the rest of society.
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Winthrop uses a metaphor in order to compare the future Puritan settlement with a city on a hill. Since it will be highly visible, the Puritans’ effort would be an inspirational example — if it succeeded.
Question 2
Questions 1-3 refer to the following passage by John Winthrop (1630):

“…for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eies of all people are uppon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his present help from us, wee shall be made a story and a byword through the world, wee shall open the mouthes of enemies to speake evill of the wayes of god and all professours for Gods sake; wee shall shame the faces of many of gods worthy servants, and cause theire prayers to be turned into Cursses upon us till wee be consumed out of the good land whether wee are going…”

Why did the Puritans settle in towns?

A
It was required as part of their charter.
B
Town meetings were important to the political and religious life of the Puritan settlers.
C
There were no other options.
D
The Puritans thought the Bible only permits settlements in towns.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Settling in towns allowed Puritans to supervise each other and facilitate attendance at worship services. Church members were the only ones who could vote in local affairs.
Question 3
Questions 1-3 refer to the following passage by John Winthrop (1630):

“…for wee must Consider that wee shall be as a Citty upon a Hill, the eies of all people are uppon us; soe that if wee shall deale falsely with our god in this worke wee have undertaken and soe cause him to withdrawe his present help from us, wee shall be made a story and a byword through the world, wee shall open the mouthes of enemies to speake evill of the wayes of god and all professours for Gods sake; wee shall shame the faces of many of gods worthy servants, and cause theire prayers to be turned into Cursses upon us till wee be consumed out of the good land whether wee are going…”

How much religious diversity existed in Britain’s North American colonies?

A
None — the colonists were all Puritans.
B
None — the colonists were all Catholics.
C
It is impossible to know because religion could not be discussed in public.
D
Very high diversity — colonists followed many different sects.
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The colonies attracted people from many different beliefs, including Puritans, Catholics, Presbyterians, Anglicans, and others.
Question 4
Questions 4-5 refer to the following passage by John Smith (1624) which describes the colony of Virginia:

“The mildnesse of the ayre, the fertilitie of the soyle, and situation of the rivers are so propitious to the nature and vse of man, as no place is more convenient for pleasure, profit, and mans sustenance, vnder that latitude or climat. Here will liue any beasts, as horses, goats, sheepe, asses, hens, &c. as appeared by them that were carried thether. The waters, Isles, and shoales, are full of safe harbours for ships of warre or marchandize, for boats of all sorts, for transportation or fishing, &c. The Bay and rivers haue much marchantable fish, and places fit for Salt coats, building of ships, making of Iron, &c.”

What was the primary reason Smith offered to justify colonization of Virginia?

A
Exploitation of natural resources.
B
Conversion of the Native Americans to Christianity.
C
The fame and glory of exploration and expansion.
D
The healthy climate.
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). As opposed to the New England colonies, profit was the main motivation that drove colonization in Virginia.
Question 5
Questions 4-5 refer to the following passage by John Smith (1624) which describes the colony of Virginia:

“The mildnesse of the ayre, the fertilitie of the soyle, and situation of the rivers are so propitious to the nature and vse of man, as no place is more convenient for pleasure, profit, and mans sustenance, vnder that latitude or climat. Here will liue any beasts, as horses, goats, sheepe, asses, hens, &c. as appeared by them that were carried thether. The waters, Isles, and shoales, are full of safe harbours for ships of warre or marchandize, for boats of all sorts, for transportation or fishing, &c. The Bay and rivers haue much marchantable fish, and places fit for Salt coats, building of ships, making of Iron, &c.”

What was an important consequence of the decision to colonize Virginia on counties instead of towns?

A
Political and cultural institutions developed more slowly because the population was spread out over a larger area.
B
Virginians were less vulnerable to Indian attack.
C
Virginia was less profitable than other colonies because taxes were higher in counties as opposed to towns.
D
There were no significant consequences.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). In order to obtain the most land they could, individuals in Virginia dispersed over a large area and it made more sense to organize into counties as opposed to towns. Because the population was more dispersed, churches, markets, and other institutions evolved more slowly than in other regions.
Question 6
Questions 6-7 refer to the map below that illustrates European expeditions to the New World.

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What statement best describes the relationships between different European imperial powers?

A
They often cooperated and shared profits in order to prevent conflict.
B
The imperial powers rarely interacted with each other.
C
Colonial rivalry led to frequent conflicts.
D
In order to civilize the Native Americans, European imperial powers put aside their religious differences.
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Imperial powers all sought to outdo each other and tension often led to imperial wars, such as the War of Jenkin’s Ear, King William’s War, and Queen Anne’s War in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Question 7
Questions 6-7 refer to the map below that illustrates European expeditions to the New World.

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Which of the following was NOT a motivation that drove colonists to settle in the New World?

A
Economic prosperity.
B
Political oppression in Europe.
C
Religious freedom.
D
Social mobility.
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Colonists sought a better life for themselves and, in the case of the Puritans, sometimes sought religious freedom. However, colonists did not seek political freedom — revolutionary sentiments only emerged later.
Question 8
Questions 8-11 refer to the image below depicting the use of African slaves on a Virginia tobacco plantation.

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What was the most common form of resistance among slaves in the New World?

A
Slaves ran away and intentionally worked slowly.
B
Slaves frequently gathered weapons and launched armed insurrections.
C
Slave often poisoned their masters.
D
Slaves regularly committed suicide to spite their masters.
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Although slave owners feared armed rebellions, insurrection was relatively rare. Instead, slaves sought more mundane ways to frustrate their overseers.
Question 9
Questions 8-11 refer to the image below depicting the use of African slaves on a Virginia tobacco plantation.

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What statement correctly describes the syncretic nature of slave culture in the British colonies?

A
Slaves completely abandoned their traditional beliefs.
B
Slaves refused to abandon any traditional beliefs.
C
Slaves blended new and traditional beliefs.
D
Slaves were prevented from having any culture by law.
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Slaves retained some of their traditional language, religion, and food dishes but also adopted some elements of British trans-Atlantic culture including language and Christianity.
Question 10
Questions 8-11 refer to the image below depicting the use of African slaves on a Virginia tobacco plantation.

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What statement correctly describes the status of slaves in the southern British colonies?

A
It was only temporary and slaves were freed after they worked for their master for a certain number of years.
B
Slaves inherited the status from their father and as a result had many rights except for suffrage.
C
Slaves inherited the status from their mothers thus incorporating a strong racial element into colonial society.
D
Britain banned slavery in the colonies so all slaves were expelled.
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Slavery became closely associated with race and southern colonists thought this was proof blacks were inferior. Southern colonists tried to prohibit interracial relationships because they believed blacks deserved to be perpetually enslaved.
Question 11
Questions 8-11 refer to the image below depicting the use of African slaves on a Virginia tobacco plantation.

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Why did slavery become prevalent in the southern colonies but not in New England?

A
Southern colonies relied on more labor-intensive cash crops.
B
New England Puritans were more devout than southern colonists.
C
Slaves died in the colder New England weather but thrived in the climate of the southern colonies.
D
Slaves were taxed at a higher rate in New England and it made less sense to own them.
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Virginia relied on tobacco and colonists in the Carolinas planted a lot of rice which were both very labor-intensive crops. New Englanders created a mixed economy and did not need slaves to supply cheap labor.
Question 12
Questions 12-14 refer to the following passage from the mid-18th century by Malachy Postlewayt:

“That the increase of the wealth, splendour, and power of Great Britain and Ireland depends upon exporting more in value of our native produce and manufactures than we import of commodities from other nations and brining thereby money into the kingdom by means of freight by shipping…that gold and silver is the measure of trade and that silver is a commodity and may be exported, especially in foreign coin as well as any other commodity.”

What consequences did the policy of mercantilism have for British colonies in North America?

A
The British crown demanded large cash payments of silver and gold every year.
B
The British crown encouraged the colonies to trade with many other countries in order to obtain as much gold as possible.
C
The British crown paid very little attention to the balance of trade.
D
The colonies provided raw materials but manufactured very few goods.
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Mercantilism sought to create a favorable balance of trade between the home country and the colonies. The colonies furnished cheap goods and bought finished products from the home country.
Question 13
Questions 12-14 refer to the following passage from the mid-18th century by Malachy Postlewayt:

“That the increase of the wealth, splendour, and power of Great Britain and Ireland depends upon exporting more in value of our native produce and manufactures than we import of commodities from other nations and brining thereby money into the kingdom by means of freight by shipping…that gold and silver is the measure of trade and that silver is a commodity and may be exported, especially in foreign coin as well as any other commodity.”

What statement best describes the British crown’s attitude towards the colonies in North America prior to mid-18th century?

A
Salutary neglect — the king simultaneously neglected the colonies and praised them.
B
Salutary neglect — the king and his cabinet rarely enforced the rules that governed the colonies which benefitted as a result.
C
Negligent solitude — the king and his cabinet ordered the colonies to isolate themselves from each other.
D
Negligent solitude — the colonies stopped trading with Britain and suffered as a result.
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Although there were laws on the books, such as the Navigation Acts, British officials rarely enforced them. This gave the colonies more control over their own economic and political activities.
Question 14
Questions 12-14 refer to the following passage from the mid-18th century by Malachy Postlewayt:

“That the increase of the wealth, splendour, and power of Great Britain and Ireland depends upon exporting more in value of our native produce and manufactures than we import of commodities from other nations and brining thereby money into the kingdom by means of freight by shipping…that gold and silver is the measure of trade and that silver is a commodity and may be exported, especially in foreign coin as well as any other commodity.”

What statement best describes the economic activity in the Atlantic world during the colonial period?

A
Very little trade occurred — mercantilism prevented the British colonists from earning profits.
B
Some trade occurred but only between the British colonies and Canada.
C
A lively trade emerged between the North American colonies, Britain, and Africa.
D
A lively trade emerged but only amongst the British colonies because mercantilism banned trans-Atlantic trade.
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The colonies engaged in triangular trade by buying slaves from Africa and selling raw materials to Britain. The British manufactured goods which they then used to purchase slaves.
Question 15
Questions 15-17 refer to the following passage by Jonathan Edwards in the early 18th century:

“And then it was, in the latter part of December, that the Spirit of God began extraordinarily to set in and wonderfully to work among us; and there were, very suddenly, one after another, five or six persons who were to all appearance savingly converted, and some of them wrought upon in a very remarkable manner…God made it, I suppose, the greatest occasion of awakening to others...Those who were wont to be the vainest and loosest, and those who had been disposed to think and speak lightly of vital and experimental religion, were now generally subject to great awakenings.”

Which of the following statements correctly describes the phenomenon discussed by Edwards?

A
The Great Experiment was a mix of rational science and religion.
B
The Great Experiment was an attempt to save atheists in the colonies.
C
The Great Awakening was an attempt to convert the largely Catholic population of the British colonies to Protestantism.
D
The Great Awakening was a trans-Atlantic event which helped increase religious pluralism in the colonies.
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The Great Awakening led to schisms and the birth of new churches in the colonies. However, it occurred within the larger trans-Atlantic world that connected the colonies and Britain.
Question 16
Questions 15-17 refer to the following passage by Jonathan Edwards in the early 18th century:

“And then it was, in the latter part of December, that the Spirit of God began extraordinarily to set in and wonderfully to work among us; and there were, very suddenly, one after another, five or six persons who were to all appearance savingly converted, and some of them wrought upon in a very remarkable manner…God made it, I suppose, the greatest occasion of awakening to others...Those who were wont to be the vainest and loosest, and those who had been disposed to think and speak lightly of vital and experimental religion, were now generally subject to great awakenings.”

What statement best describes the political connections between the North American colonies and the British crown before the mid-18th century?

A
The colonists had long sought freedom from the crown and continuously rebelled against its influence.
B
Colonists built political institutions based on British models but had a large degree of autonomy.
C
The colonies had close ties to Britain and had very little autonomy.
D
There were no connections — long trans-Atlantic crossings made it impossible for the colonies and crown to communicate.
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The colonies drew upon many of the same political ideas and parties that evolved in Britain. However, they developed a strong sense of freedom due to salutary neglect.
Question 17
Questions 15-17 refer to the following passage by Jonathan Edwards in the early 18th century:

“And then it was, in the latter part of December, that the Spirit of God began extraordinarily to set in and wonderfully to work among us; and there were, very suddenly, one after another, five or six persons who were to all appearance savingly converted, and some of them wrought upon in a very remarkable manner…God made it, I suppose, the greatest occasion of awakening to others...Those who were wont to be the vainest and loosest, and those who had been disposed to think and speak lightly of vital and experimental religion, were now generally subject to great awakenings.”

What was an important feature of the Enlightenment?

A
The Enlightenment highlighted the values Britain shared with her North American colonies.
B
The Enlightenment helped the colonies achieve nirvana.
C
The Enlightenment ruined the colonial economy because it distracted people with philosophical discussions.
D
The Enlightenment increased support for the British monarchy by showing how charitable the king could be to the colonies.
Question 17 Explanation: 
The correct answer (A). Newspapers and other publications helped spread the Enlightenment from one side of the Atlantic Ocean to the other. It also highlighted the shared cultural and political values that made up the British empire.
Question 18
Questions 18-20 refer to the image below which depicts William Penn negotiating a treaty with the Delaware Indians in the late 17th century.

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Are the events depicted in the painting representative of the general pattern of interactions between British colonists and indigenous peoples?

A
Yes — many colonies saw that Penn’s diplomatic approach worked and copied it.
B
Partially — Native Americans negotiated with the colonies but also used military force to resist encroachment.
C
No — all the Native Americans died from disease shortly after Penn’s treaty and disappeared from history.
D
No — Native Americans preferred to massacre innocent colonists instead of negotiate.
Question 18 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The relationship between the colonies and indigenous tribes was very dynamic. Periods of peaceful coexistence were often interrupted by violent conflicts.
Question 19
Questions 18-20 refer to the image below which depicts William Penn negotiating a treaty with the Delaware Indians in the late 17th century.

a8

Which of the following statements correctly describes the military strength of Native American tribes in the 17th century?

A
The tribes were weak and were always defeated by European forces.
B
The tribes outnumbered the colonists and easily massacred them.
C
It was a stalemate and neither group was able to achieve victory.
D
The Native Americans sometimes achieved victories against the colonists but were steadily pushed back by European forces.
Question 19 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The Native Americans were powerful military allies who could launch devastating raids against the colonial frontiers. However, they could not withstand superior European technology and ever increasing numbers of colonists.
Question 20
Questions 18-20 refer to the image below which depicts William Penn negotiating a treaty with the Delaware Indians in the late 17th century.

a8

What, if any, obstacles led to political misunderstandings between the indigenous peoples of North America and European colonists?

A
None — Native Americans and settlers had very similar political systems.
B
Native Americans were disgusted when colonists urged them to grant equal rights to women.
C
Europeans were initially confused by the decentralized nature of power within indigenous tribes.
D
Europeans were shocked to learn that Native Americans had strict term limits for their chiefs.
Question 20 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). At first, European settlers did not understand why single chiefs were unable to control the complex system of tribes and clans. Eventually, they learned how to negotiate according to indigenous traditions.
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