AP US History Practice Test: Period 5 (1844–1877)

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Question 1
Questions 1–2 refer to following excerpt from a speech about Manifest Destiny by John O’Sullivan:

“We must onward to the fulfilment of our mission — to the entire development of the principle of our organization — freedom of conscience, freedom of person, freedom of trade and business pursuits, universality of freedom and equality. This is our high destiny, and in nature's eternal, inevitable decree of cause and effect we must accomplish it. All this will be our future history, to establish on earth the moral dignity and salvation of man — the immutable truth and beneficence of God. …Who, then, can doubt that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity?”

What consequences did Manifest Destiny have in the mid-19th century?

A
It brought democracy to the entire world.
B
It led to the passage of the Bill of Rights.
C
It led to conflict with Mexico.
D
It led to religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics.
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Manifest Destiny held that it was America’s responsibility to control all of North America and civilize it. As O’Sullivan reveals, many Americans thought the country was uniquely virtuous. This led to the Mexican-American War between 1846-1848.
Question 2
Questions 1–2 refer to following excerpt from a speech about Manifest Destiny by John O’Sullivan:

“We must onward to the fulfilment of our mission — to the entire development of the principle of our organization — freedom of conscience, freedom of person, freedom of trade and business pursuits, universality of freedom and equality. This is our high destiny, and in nature's eternal, inevitable decree of cause and effect we must accomplish it. All this will be our future history, to establish on earth the moral dignity and salvation of man — the immutable truth and beneficence of God. …Who, then, can doubt that our country is destined to be the great nation of futurity?”

What impact did Manifest Destiny have on the debate about slavery?

A
None — Manifest Destiny did not address the rights of slaves.
B
Manifest Destiny urged slave owners to liberate their slaves and convert them to Christianity.
C
Manifest Destiny urged slaves to return to Africa because they were not citizens.
D
Manifest Destiny reignited concern about the status of slavery in western territories.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Manifest Destiny resulted in the acquisition of large amounts of territory form Mexico in the war of 1846-1848. A fierce political debate erupted over whether slavery should be banned or permitted in the new territory. This ultimately ruined the fragile Missouri Compromise of 1820.
Question 3
Questions 3-4 refer to the following letter from 1846 written by Irishman William Dunne to his cousin John Curtis who immigrated to America:

“I suppose you have herd of it there was not one steme of potatoes in my house this three months it is very seldome that there does one come to market at all and what comes in not worth buying they cant be eat they, sell at 8 or 9 shillings per hundred Everything else is very dear also and bad Everyday went for the poor and bad wages the people are starving in the west of Ireland and turning out for something to eat we think that there will be a rebellion if there is not something done your sister Hannah has wrote to me prety regular wince all her friends left her she did not know what it is to be alone and til now she lets me know Everything she hears from you I believe they are prety well of she says.”

What consequences did Irish immigration have in America during the mid-19th century?

A
The influx of Irish immigrants caused a nativist backlash.
B
Irish immigrants forced the US government to adopt Catholicism as the nation’s official religion.
C
Irish immigrants used their political clout to enforce temperance laws.
D
Irish immigrants had no impact because they were few in number.
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). A spike in Irish immigration during the 1840s and 1850s caused tension with “nativists” — Americans who resented immigrants. They clashed over cultural differences, such as the Irish preference for Catholicism, and economic competition.
Question 4
Questions 3-4 refer to the following letter from 1846 written by Irishman William Dunne to his cousin John Curtis who immigrated to America:

“I suppose you have herd of it there was not one steme of potatoes in my house this three months it is very seldome that there does one come to market at all and what comes in not worth buying they cant be eat they, sell at 8 or 9 shillings per hundred Everything else is very dear also and bad Everyday went for the poor and bad wages the people are starving in the west of Ireland and turning out for something to eat we think that there will be a rebellion if there is not something done your sister Hannah has wrote to me prety regular wince all her friends left her she did not know what it is to be alone and til now she lets me know Everything she hears from you I believe they are prety well of she says.”

Which of the following factors influenced German immigration in American during the mid-19th century?

A
An act by Congress excluding German immigrants reduced immigration to America.
B
A political revolution in Germany in 1848 increased immigration to the US.
C
The German government banned all emigration out of the country which reduced the influx of German settlers to the US.
D
The German government exiled all Jews to American which increased immigration.
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). A wave of revolutions swept across Europe in 1848 but most, including the German uprising, failed. As a result, many political dissidents fled to the United States which also contributed to the nativist tension in the mid-19th century.
Question 5
Questions 5-7 refer to the following excerpt from a campaign song of the Free Soil Party in the mid-19th century:

“Let fame to the world sound freedom’s loud voice,
No lures from its hold can ‘free soilers’ sever;
With VAN BUREN and ADAMS, her laws are their choice,
And shall flourish till Liberty slumbers forever.
Then unite hear and hand
With the ‘free soilers’ band,
And Swear by the God of the ‘free labored’ land,
That ne’er shall the sons born to freedom be slaves,
While the earth bears a plant, or the sea rolls its waves.”

How did the Free Soil party reflect the growing sectional differences of the North and South?

A
Northern supporters of the Free Soil party wanted southern slaveholders to liberate their slaves and give them free land.
B
The Free Soil party membership was largely southern and demanded that the North accept all recently freed slaves and gave them land.
C
The Free Soil party highlighted the growing religious differences in the North and South resulting from Catholic missionaries.
D
The Free Soil party highlighted the growing economic differences in the North and South resulting from unequal industrialization.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). As the North industrialized, it began to rely increasingly on the free labor market, while the South continued to rely on slavery. The Free Soil party found most of its support in the North and declared that excluding slavery from western states would protect the free labor market from competition by Southern slaves.
Question 6
Questions 5-7 refer to the following excerpt from a campaign song of the Free Soil Party in the mid-19th century:

“Let fame to the world sound freedom’s loud voice,
No lures from its hold can ‘free soilers’ sever;
With VAN BUREN and ADAMS, her laws are their choice,
And shall flourish till Liberty slumbers forever.
Then unite hear and hand
With the ‘free soilers’ band,
And Swear by the God of the ‘free labored’ land,
That ne’er shall the sons born to freedom be slaves,
While the earth bears a plant, or the sea rolls its waves.”

Which of the following statements best summarizes John Brown’s attitude towards efforts to abolish slavery through moral suasion?

A
He agreed with these efforts as the best and most efficient method.
B
He agreed with these efforts because he abhorred violence.
C
He disagreed with these efforts because he wanted faster action.
D
He disagreed with these efforts because he was an atheist.
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). John Brown led the attack on Harper’s Ferry in 1859 because he wanted to see slavery come to an immediate end. He thought moral suasion was too ineffective and slow.
Question 7
Questions 5-7 refer to the following excerpt from a campaign song of the Free Soil Party in the mid-19th century:

“Let fame to the world sound freedom’s loud voice,
No lures from its hold can ‘free soilers’ sever;
With VAN BUREN and ADAMS, her laws are their choice,
And shall flourish till Liberty slumbers forever.
Then unite hear and hand
With the ‘free soilers’ band,
And Swear by the God of the ‘free labored’ land,
That ne’er shall the sons born to freedom be slaves,
While the earth bears a plant, or the sea rolls its waves.”

What attitude did the contemporary Republican Party have towards the outbreak of the Civil War?

A
Republicans supported the war because the wanted to avenge Lincoln’s assassination.
B
Republicans supported the war because they thought the Union could not be dissolved.
C
Republicans opposed the war because they thought slavery was permissible.
D
Republicans opposed the war because they favored state’s rights.
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The Republicans found most of their support in the North and held that the South could not secede. Republicans generally opposed slavery, although it was not the stated cause of the war.
Question 8
Questions 8–10 refer to the following excerpt from President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation in 1863:

“And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.”

In what way, if any, was the Emancipation Proclamation so significant?

A
It authorized racially integrated military units and gave black soldiers equal pay and promotions.
B
It banned slavery throughout the nation.
C
It added the abolition of slavery to Northern war goals during the Civil War.
D
It simply reaffirmed the abolition of slavery which was promulgated by the Dredd Scott decision.
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Originally, the Civil War was only about restoring the Union but the Emancipation Proclamation made it a crusade against slavery. However, it only banned slavery in the South and did not integrate the armed forces.
Question 9
Questions 8–10 refer to the following excerpt from President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation in 1863:

“And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.”

What impact, if any, did the Emancipation Proclamation have on the outcome of the Civil War?

A
It isolated the South and gave the North the moral high ground.
B
It immediately forced the South to surrender in order to preserve slavery.
C
It was so unpopular it forced Lincoln to negotiate a truce with the South.
D
It caused General Sherman to defect to the Confederacy.
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). By turning the war into a battle over slavery, the Emancipation Proclamation isolated the Confederacy. European nations had banned slavery and were unwilling to intervene on behalf of the Confederacy which was fighting to protect slavery.
Question 10
Questions 8–10 refer to the following excerpt from President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation in 1863:

“And by virtue of the power, and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free; and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.”

Which of the following factors did NOT contribute to the Northern victory in the Civil War?

A
Greater industrial capacity.
B
Greater manpower.
C
A “home field” advantage by fighting to defend Northern territory.
D
Greater wealth.
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The industrial North also had greater manpower than the South and had more capital to fund the war effort. The South launched a few small forays into Northern territory, but most of the war was fought on Southern soil. This devastation also hampered the Confederate war effort.
Question 11
Question 11 refers to the following facsimile of the 15th Amendment:

“Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”

How did advocates for women’s rights react to the passage of the 15th amendment?

A
They unanimously supported it because it allowed them to vote as well.
B
The amendment fractured the women’s rights movement.
C
Advocates unanimously opposed it because it refused to ban gender discrimination.
D
Women’s rights advocates ignored the amendment because they were only concerned with suffrage for themselves.
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Before the Civil War, women’s rights advocates had often made common cause with supporters of equal rights for African Americans. However, the women’s rights movement splintered because the 15th Amendment did not ban gender discrimination. Some supported it while others demanded that it give women the vote as well.
Question 12
Question 12 refers to this excerpt from a newspaper report in Harpers Weekly in 1867:

“We have heretofore spoken of the advantages to be obtained by the operation of the Pacific Railroad in developing the treasures of California and the Rocky Mountain region, and the easy access it afford to Asiatic trade. The gains, to be sure, are for the present purely speculative, but it is easy to conjecture the results from past experience…by the time the Pacific Railroad is completed we hope to lie upon the top wave of prosperity, and to tax our new lines of intercommunication to their utmost limit.”

What impact did the Transcontinental Railroad have on Native Americans tribes of the Great Plains and West?

A
The railroad brought prosperity to Native Americans because the railroad companies paid high prices for their land and hired many Indians as laborers.
B
It allowed large numbers of Native Americans to resettle their homelands in the eastern United States.
C
The railroad brought increased cultural and political pressure on the Native Americans.
D
It had little impact because most of the Native Americans had died or left the area.
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The construction of the Transcontinental Railroad, along with legislation that encouraged western expansion, threatened Native Americans’ traditional way of life. Buffalo hunters decimated the herds that sustained Indians and settlers encroached on tribal lands.
Question 13
Question 13 refers to the following excerpt from a letter written by President Millard Fillmore to ruler of Japan — Emperor Komei in 1853:

“I have directed Commodore Perry to assure your imperial majesty that I entertain the kindest feelings toward your majesty's person and government, and that I have no other object in sending him to Japan but to propose to your imperial majesty that the United States and Japan should live in friendship and have commercial intercourse with each other... Japan is also a rich and fertile country, and produces many very valuable articles. Your imperial majesty's subjects are skilled in many of the arts. I am desirous that our two countries should trade with each other, for the benefit both of Japan and the United States.”

How did the Japanese respond to Commodore Perry’s attempt to open trade with the United States?

A
The Japanese resented foreign influence and only acquiesced under force of arms.
B
The Japanese were eager to engage in trade because they needed foreign currency.
C
The Japanese were insulted and quickly defeated Perry’s force in a surprise attack.
D
The Japanese signed an agreement but then repudiated it as soon as Perry sailed away.
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Japan had barred foreign trade because they feared foreign influence. They hailed the arrival of Perry’s squadron as “black ships.” However, they lacked a navy to defend themselves and Perry forced them to sign a treaty. Many other countries followed suit.
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