AP US History Practice Test: Period 6 (1865–1898)

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Question 1
Questions 1-2 refer to the following excerpt from an article describing the annexation of Hawaii in 1893:

“On one side, an ill-advised queen, seeking by intrigue and by unwise, if not disreputable, alliances to save her nationality, but supported by the passionate instincts of nearly the whole Hawaiian people; and on the other side a foreign population, who had in many cases assumed the duties of citizenship without realizing the extent of its responsibilities, and who proclaimed that the commercial interests of the foreign-born must outweigh the national interests of the Hawaiian-born citizen.”

Why did the United States annex Hawaii?

A
Queen Liliuokalani was an evil and immoral leader.
B
The Hawaiians renounced their citizenship and asked to be annexed.
C
In order to protect the economic interests of sugar planters.
D
In order to avenge a sneak-attack by the Japanese navy.
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). American businessmen achieved a foothold in Hawaii during the 19th century and tried to block other foreign influences. When Queen Liliuokalani tried to curb American influence, sugar planters launched an authorized military coup in order to protect their economic interests.
Question 2
Questions 1-2 refer to the following excerpt from an article describing the annexation of Hawaii in 1893:

“On one side, an ill-advised queen, seeking by intrigue and by unwise, if not disreputable, alliances to save her nationality, but supported by the passionate instincts of nearly the whole Hawaiian people; and on the other side a foreign population, who had in many cases assumed the duties of citizenship without realizing the extent of its responsibilities, and who proclaimed that the commercial interests of the foreign-born must outweigh the national interests of the Hawaiian-born citizen.”

What connection, if any, did Social Darwinism have to American imperialism?

A
Social Darwinism supported American imperialism by arguing some people were naturally inferior to others.
B
Social Darwinism supported American imperialism by claiming Darwin’s explorations had officially annexed territories.
C
Social Darwinism was used to oppose American imperialism by arguing for greater social evolution at home.
D
None — Social Darwinism only addressed evolutionary changes in birds of the Galapagos Islands.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Social Darwinism argued that “survival of the fittest” applied to humans as well as animals. As a result, strong nations would grow and gain imperial control over weaker nations.
Question 3
Questions 3-4 refer to the following excerpt from “The Gospel of Wealth” written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889:

“The problem of our age is the proper administration of wealth, so that the ties of brotherhood may still bind together the rich and poor in harmonious relationship. The conditions of human life have not only been changed, but revolutionized, within the past few hundred years. In former days there was little difference between the dwelling, dress, food, and environment of the chief and those of his retainers...The contrast between the palace of the millionaire and the cottage of the laborer with us to-day measures the change which has come with civilization.”

What changes led to the inequality Carnegie described during the late 19th century?

A
Increasing prices for food and goods.
B
Increasing industrialization and economic consolidation.
C
Emergence of a welfare state that encouraged laziness.
D
A widespread lack of education.
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Industrialization created a working class that was dependent on wages. Business leaders consolidated their power into large trusts and redesigned financial structures which concentrated wealth in fewer and fewer hands. Prices for goods actually declined but workers did not become rich. Although there was no real security net when workers lost their jobs, literacy was relatively widespread by the end of the 19th century.
Question 4
Questions 3-4 refer to the following excerpt from “The Gospel of Wealth” written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889:

“The problem of our age is the proper administration of wealth, so that the ties of brotherhood may still bind together the rich and poor in harmonious relationship. The conditions of human life have not only been changed, but revolutionized, within the past few hundred years. In former days there was little difference between the dwelling, dress, food, and environment of the chief and those of his retainers...The contrast between the palace of the millionaire and the cottage of the laborer with us to-day measures the change which has come with civilization.”

What did the “Gospel of Wealth” suggest as an answer to the inequality Carnegie observed?

A
Poor people must pray for greater wealth and success.
B
Religious revivals must occur in order to end sin and create wealth.
C
Wealthy individuals must serve as role models and give lectures to the poor.
D
Benefactors should use their wealth to create greater economic opportunity.
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Carnegie argued that wealthy individuals should live modest lifestyles and use their fortunes to promote the public interest. Carnegie’s support for public libraries is an example of how he felt wealth could be used to help people better themselves.
Question 5
Questions 5-6 refer to the following excerpt from the Populist Party’s 1892 platform:

“The urban workmen are denied the right to organize for self-protection, imported pauperized labor beats down their wages, a hireling standing army, unrecognized by our laws, is established to shoot them down, and they are rapidly degenerating into European conditions. The fruits of the toil of millions are badly stolen to build up colossal fortunes for a few, unprecedented in the history of mankind; and the possessors of these, in turn, despise the Republic and endanger liberty. From the same prolific womb of governmental injustice we breed the two great classes — tramps and millionaires.”

What position did the Populist Party take on laissez-faire economics?

A
They supported laissez-faire economics because it promoted competition.
B
They supported laissez-faire economics because it reinforced the gold standard.
C
They opposed laissez-faire economics because it rejected government regulation.
D
They opposed laissez-faire economics because it was anti-republican.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The Populist Party supported more government regulation of the economy, including owning railroads and communications systems. Laissez-faire economics opposed government regulation and was antithetical to the Populist Party. They felt it created too much inequality.
Question 6
Questions 5-6 refer to the following excerpt from the Populist Party’s 1892 platform:

“The urban workmen are denied the right to organize for self-protection, imported pauperized labor beats down their wages, a hireling standing army, unrecognized by our laws, is established to shoot them down, and they are rapidly degenerating into European conditions. The fruits of the toil of millions are badly stolen to build up colossal fortunes for a few, unprecedented in the history of mankind; and the possessors of these, in turn, despise the Republic and endanger liberty. From the same prolific womb of governmental injustice we breed the two great classes — tramps and millionaires.”

What was the most common method workers used to confront business owners and managers during the late 19th century?

A
They formed labor unions and called for strikes.
B
They primarily conducted assassinations and organized armed rebellions.
C
They frequently bribed public officials and committed election fraud.
D
They repeatedly occupied government offices and created communist enclaves.
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Labor unions began to grow in strength after the Civil War as workers became increasingly aware of their class identity. Unions often organized strikes which led to armed conflict with private detectives, police, and soldiers. Examples include: the Great Railway Strike of 1877, the Homestead Strike of 1892, and Pullman Strike of 1894.
Question 7
Question 7 refers to the following excerpt from the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882:

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That from and after the expiration of ninety days next after the passage of this act, and until the expiration of ten years next after the passage of this act, the coming of Chinese laborers to the United States be, and the same is hereby, suspended; and during such suspension it shall not be lawful for any Chinese laborer to come, or having so come after the expiration of said ninety days to remain within the United States.”

Why did Congressmen enact the Chinese Exclusion Act?

A
They wanted to retaliate against the Chinese government which had attacked the US Navy.
B
They wanted to stop the influx of Chinese monks who converted many Americans to Taoism.
C
They wanted to reduce economic competition from Chinese laborers.
D
They wanted to reduce the transportation of opium into America by Chinese smugglers.
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Chinese workers streamed into the US in search of economic opportunities. They took many low-paying jobs, such as railroad construction. Cultural tension also caused many politicians to express racist opinions about Chinese immigrants.
Question 8
Questions 8-9 refer to the following excerpt from The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlement written by Jane Addams in 1892:

“It is not difficult to see that although America is pledged to the democratic ideal, the view of democracy has been partial, and that its best achievement thus far has been pushed along the line of the franchise. Democracy has made little attempt to assert itself in social affairs…We hasten to give the franchise to the immigrant from a sense of justice, from a tradition that he ought to have it, while we dub him with epithets deriding his past life or present occupation, and feel no duty to invite him to our houses.”

Which of the following characteristics of immigrants from southern and eastern Europe did NOT contribute to cultural tension after they arrived in America in the late 19th century?

A
Most immigrants continued to practice Catholicism or Judaism.
B
Many immigrants continued to speak a different language.
C
Immigrants unanimously supported temperance laws.
D
Many immigrants preferred their traditional cuisine and other customs.
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Immigrants often followed previous arrivals and settled in the same area — a process called chain migration. They could continue practicing their traditional cultural, which frustrated many Americans including Jane Addams. She hoped settlement homes would help immigrants adapt to the American way of life.
Question 9
Questions 8-9 refer to the following excerpt from The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlement written by Jane Addams in 1892:

“It is not difficult to see that although America is pledged to the democratic ideal, the view of democracy has been partial, and that its best achievement thus far has been pushed along the line of the franchise. Democracy has made little attempt to assert itself in social affairs…We hasten to give the franchise to the immigrant from a sense of justice, from a tradition that he ought to have it, while we dub him with epithets deriding his past life or present occupation, and feel no duty to invite him to our houses.”

Was the relationship between immigrants and political machines in the late 19th century cooperative or oppositional?

A
Political machines helped immigrants learn English and become citizens.
B
Political machines provided favors to immigrants in exchange for votes.
C
Political machines worked to restrict immigration and block naturalization.
D
Political machines organized violent protests against immigrants.
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Political machines helped recent immigrants find jobs or provided other services. In exchange, immigrants voted for the machine’s candidates and were complicit in election fraud. A key example is Irish support for the Tammany Hall machine in New York under boss Tweed during the late 19th century.
Question 10
Questions 10-11 refer to the following excerpt from the Louisiana Black Codes of 1865:

“Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. Landry, That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. Whoever shall violate this provision shall pay a fine of two dollars and fifty cents, or in default thereof shall be forced to work four days on the public road, or suffer corporeal punishment as provided hereinafter. . . Sec. 4. . . . Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person, or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro.”

What impact did Reconstruction have on the legal rights of freedmen living in the post-bellum South?

A
Reconstruction had few benefits because federal laws were poorly enforced.
B
Reconstruction had some benefits because it forced lazy freedmen to work.
C
Reconstruction had many benefits because all slave owners were imprisoned.
D
Reconstruction had many benefits because it rebuilt former plantations so that freedmen had housing and jobs.
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The Reconstruction Amendments gave blacks equal rights on paper but that meant little in the South during the late 19th century. State and local governments quickly passed laws that revoked these rights, and in 1877 the federal government eventually stopped trying to enforce compliance with the Reconstruction Amendments.
Question 11
Questions 10-11 refer to the following excerpt from the Louisiana Black Codes of 1865:

“Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. Landry, That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. Whoever shall violate this provision shall pay a fine of two dollars and fifty cents, or in default thereof shall be forced to work four days on the public road, or suffer corporeal punishment as provided hereinafter. . . Sec. 4. . . . Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person, or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro.”

How much economic opportunity did blacks have in the post-bellum South?

A
Blacks had the same economic opportunity as whites and many became rich cotton planters.
B
Blacks used their newfound political power to engage in rampant political corruption and massive embezzlement.
C
Blacks had few opportunities which led to a massive exodus of families who farmed the Great Plains.
D
Sharecropping meant blacks had were trapped in a cycle of economic dependency.
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Sharecropping meant that black farmers became indebted to white landlords for crops and equipment. Few escaped this vicious cycle although a small number went west in search of more opportunity.
Question 12
Questions 12-13 refer to the following excerpt from a letter by Harry Shirley, a member of the Caddo Indian tribe, who attended the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in 1882:

“...we got at Carlisle on Thursday and when we got here I did not like the place but since I have being here two or three days I have got used to the place and I like it very well but when we got I felt very home sick and be sure and send my bow and some spike arrows. And we go to church every Sunday. And I have a blue suit to where (sic) and there was one Shyenne (sic) boy shot himself with a pistol... the boys have a nice green lawn in which play Kicking a football."

What impact did the Indian boarding schools have on Native American culture?

A
They had no impact because very few students attended these institutions.
B
They accelerated the cultural assimilation process although not in a uniform fashion.
C
The schools helped strengthen and spread Native American culture by introducing many white students to Indian values.
D
The schools successfully eradicated all traces of Native American culture.
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Institutions such as the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, forced Native American students to give up their traditional values and adopt white culture, including clothing and the English language. However, many students returned to their traditional way of life after leaving the schools.
Question 13
Questions 12-13 refer to the following excerpt from a letter by Harry Shirley, a member of the Caddo Indian tribe, who attended the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in 1882:

“...we got at Carlisle on Thursday and when we got here I did not like the place but since I have being here two or three days I have got used to the place and I like it very well but when we got I felt very home sick and be sure and send my bow and some spike arrows. And we go to church every Sunday. And I have a blue suit to where (sic) and there was one Shyenne (sic) boy shot himself with a pistol... the boys have a nice green lawn in which play Kicking a football."

Which of the following statements best describes the status of Native American tribes in the late 19th century?

A
They had been completely destroyed as political, military, and cultural forces.
B
They were still strong political, military, and cultural forces that successfully resisted attempts to interfere with their affairs.
C
The US government treated tribes as sovereign units and allowed them to keep large amounts of land.
D
The US government no longer treated the tribes as sovereign units and forced them onto modest reservations.
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 said the tribes were no longer sovereign and Congress did not have to negotiate with them. The Dawes Act of 1887 provided families a mere 160 acres of land and opened up millions of acres for white settlement.
Question 14
Questions 14-15 refer to the following excerpt from Godey’s Lady’s Book:

“Remember the Lady's Book is not a mere luxury; it is a necessity. There is no lady who takes the Book that does not save twice the price of it in a year in the matter of domestic economy. Its receipts, its patterns, its needle-work, its instructions in housekeeping are invaluable to the housekeeper."

How does this excerpt relate to the 19th century concepts of domesticity and separate spheres?

A
It shows how women could overcome these limitations by participating fully in the world of business.
B
It shows how weak the concepts were because Godey’s Lady’s Book quickly went out of business.
C
It shows how widespread the concepts were and urged women to conform.
D
It shows how women were ignorant of these concepts and needed instructions on how to care for themselves.
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Godey’s Lady’s Book was published for almost 50 years and was an influential source for fashion. It also reinforced the contemporary attitudes towards domesticity and urged women to master the private sphere.
Question 15
Questions 14-15 refer to the following excerpt from Godey’s Lady’s Book:

“Remember the Lady's Book is not a mere luxury; it is a necessity. There is no lady who takes the Book that does not save twice the price of it in a year in the matter of domestic economy. Its receipts, its patterns, its needle-work, its instructions in housekeeping are invaluable to the housekeeper."

What factors contributed to the growth of the middle class during the late 19th century?

A
The expansion of educational opportunities and increasing professional employment.
B
A period of sustained economic growth led to a better standard of living for all.
C
The manufacture of cheap and durable home appliances, such as vacuums and refrigerators, let most people attain a middle class lifestyle.
D
The generosity of wealthy individuals who paid high wages to their workers.
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Access to education increased and literacy became widespread after the Civil War. In addition, new professional and white collar careers, such as clerks and managers, expanded. This led to a larger middle class and one of the hallmarks of membership in this group was the ability to participate in leisure activities. However, the boom and bust economic cycle also characterized the Gilded Age: the Panics of 1873 and 1893 are key examples of this.
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