AP US History Practice Test: Period 7 (1890–1945)

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Question 1
Questions 1-2 refer to the following excerpt from a book by a German observer who visited America in the 1920s:

“To grasp the magnitude of the automobile problem, one must realize that New York alone has more cars than all of Europe. I am told that every fourth person here owns a car. Workers and simple people have their own machines, which they naturally drive themselves. The auto is not a luxury here; it is in somewhat the same category as a bicycle among us, a simple means of transportation that makes possible residence outside the city.”

What impact did the automobile have on American society in the early 20th century?

A
It helped spark the Great Depression because many people went bankrupt after they bought cars and were unable to make the payments.
B
It had little impact before World War II because only upper-class individuals could buy cars since they were so expensive.
C
It spurred an increase in immigration because many Europeans wanted to move to America so they could have an automobile.
D
It led to increased personal freedom and mobility.
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The widespread use of automobiles led to greater mobility, especially for young people. Previously, young men and women “courted” each other under heavy parental supervision. Automobiles allowed teenagers to meet outside the home without chaperones.
Question 2
Questions 1-2 refer to the following excerpt from a book by a German observer who visited America in the 1920s:

“To grasp the magnitude of the automobile problem, one must realize that New York alone has more cars than all of Europe. I am told that every fourth person here owns a car. Workers and simple people have their own machines, which they naturally drive themselves. The auto is not a luxury here; it is in somewhat the same category as a bicycle among us, a simple means of transportation that makes possible residence outside the city.”

What impact did automobiles have on Jim Crow laws in the early 20th century?

A
Cars helped immediately end Jim Crow segregation by proving the blacks could drive as well as whites.
B
Cars had little impact on Jim Crow segregation because blacks were prohibited from owning or driving cars (except as chauffeurs).
C
Cars gave blacks more mobility but did not totally undermine Jim Crow rules.
D
Automobiles reinforced Jim Crow segregation because blacks were forced to pull over and let whites drive their cars whenever they wanted.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Cars let blacks move about more freely but they were still subject to discrimination. Many black motorists were still banned from public services such as gas stations, rest areas, and motels. Police officer also harassed black motorists.
Question 3
Question 3 refers to the following excerpt from a 1927 article:

“Modern economic conditions, with the mania for speedy profits, have been a powerful factor in producing the ‘New Woman,’ inasmuch as they have dragged her into the commercial world and made her economically independent. It is quite impossible for a woman to engage successfully in business and politics and at the same time create a happy home. A woman cannot be a mother and a typist at the same time.”

How, if at all, did the status of women change in the early 20th century?

A
Women gained greater economic and political freedom.
B
Women were forced to choose between motherhood and a career.
C
Women became unwilling participants in the modern economy.
D
It changed very little — the “New Woman” was largely a fiction.
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Ratified in 1920, the 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote. In addition, women entered the workforce in greater numbers, especially during World War I. However, many reformers continued to demand more change.
Question 4
Questions 4-5 refer to this excerpt from The Jungle by Upton Sinclair:

“There were cattle which had been fed on ‘whiskey-malt,’ the refuse of the breweries, and had become what the men called “steerly” — which means covered with boils. It was a nasty job killing these, for when you plunged your knife into them they would burst and splash foul-smelling stuff into your face; and when a man’s sleeves were smeared with blood, and his hands steeped in it, how was he ever to wipe his face, or to clear his eyes so that he could see? It was stuff such as this that made the “embalmed beef” that had killed several times as many United States soldiers as all the bullets of the Spaniards; only the army beef, besides, was not fresh canned, it was old stuff that had been lying for years in the cellars.”

What attitude did the Progressives take towards the conditions described by Sinclair?

A
They thought everyone should become a vegan in order to reduce meat consumption.
B
They thought more government regulation was required in order to protect public health.
C
They supported laissez-faire economics and felt consumers should boycott corrupt meat packing firms.
D
The felt nothing should be done because they supported laissez-faire economics.
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Progressives believed that increased government regulation could solve many different political, social, and economic issues.
Question 5
Questions 4-5 refer to this excerpt from The Jungle by Upton Sinclair:

“There were cattle which had been fed on ‘whiskey-malt,’ the refuse of the breweries, and had become what the men called “steerly” — which means covered with boils. It was a nasty job killing these, for when you plunged your knife into them they would burst and splash foul-smelling stuff into your face; and when a man’s sleeves were smeared with blood, and his hands steeped in it, how was he ever to wipe his face, or to clear his eyes so that he could see? It was stuff such as this that made the “embalmed beef” that had killed several times as many United States soldiers as all the bullets of the Spaniards; only the army beef, besides, was not fresh canned, it was old stuff that had been lying for years in the cellars.”

How did the Progressives feel about women’s suffrage and Prohibition?

A
They uniformly supported women’s suffrage but opposed Prohibition.
B
They unanimously supported women’s suffrage but opposed Prohibition.
C
They generally supported both causes.
D
They unanimously opposed both causes.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Generally, Progressives supported women’s suffrage because they felt it was an essential part of American democracy. They also typically supported Prohibition because it would use the power of the government to eliminate social problems.
Question 6
Question 6 refers to the following quote from John Muir:

“Walk away quietly in any direction and taste the freedom of the mountaineer. Camp out among the grasses and gentians of glacial meadows, in craggy garden nooks full of nature's darlings. Climb the mountains and get their good tidings, Nature's peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into trees. The winds will blow their own freshness into you and the storms their energy, while cares will drop off like autumn leaves. As age comes on, one source of enjoyment after another is closed, but nature's sources never fail.”

What position did John Muir take on the exploitation of natural resources within the national park system?

A
Because he was a conservationist, he opposed it.
B
Because he was a preservationist, he opposed it.
C
Because he was a conservationist, he supported it.
D
Because he was a preservationist, he supported it.
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Muir was a preservationist who wanted to minimize human impact on the environment. He thus wanted to protect natural resources for exploitation and abuse. Conservationists felt that the responsible use of natural resources was not problematic.
Question 7
Questions 7-9 refer to the following excerpt from President Woodrow Wilson’s 1917 War Message to Congress:

“But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts — for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free. To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured.”

What consequences, if any, did World War I have for African-Americans?

A
They immediately earned full political and legal rights because of their bravery under fire.
B
Cultural rejuvenation occurred as many blacks moved north in search of jobs.
C
Many were jailed because of their opposition to the war.
D
None — African Americans made few contributions to the war effort.
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Because of manpower shortages, tens of thousands of Southern blacks moved north in order to find employment — this was known as the Great Migration. These social changes led to the Harlem Renaissance — a cultural phenomenon that focused on ethnic and regional identity in fashion, music, and literature.
Question 8
Questions 7-9 refer to the following excerpt from President Woodrow Wilson’s 1917 War Message to Congress:

“But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts — for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free. To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured.”

What impact did World War I have on free speech in America?

A
None — the government did not hide any secrets from the public during the war.
B
The war stimulated free speech by encouraging debate about the causes of the conflict.
C
The Espionage and Sedition Acts curbed free speech during the war.
D
The revocation of the First Amendment permanently restricted the right to free speech.
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The Espionage and Sedition Acts were enacted to protect military secrets and enforce loyalty during World War I. The laws were mostly used to prosecute political radicals like Eugene Debs and Emma Goldman. The Sedition Act was repealed in 1921 but the Espionage Act remains in force to this day.
Question 9
Questions 7-9 refer to the following excerpt from President Woodrow Wilson’s 1917 War Message to Congress:

“But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts — for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations and make the world itself at last free. To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured.”

Which of the following statements best describes American participation in World War I?

A
The US joined the conflict very late but provided a key contribution to the Triple Entente.
B
The US fought alongside the Central Powers for the entire duration of the war.
C
The US stayed out of the fight but helped broker a peace treaty that ended the conflict.
D
The US initially allied itself with the Central Powers but later switched sides once it became clear the Triple Entente would win.
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). President Woodrow Wilson initially kept the United States out of World War I by declaring neutrality. Eventually, unrestricted U-boat warfare and the Zimmerman Telegram brought the US into the conflict on the side of the Triple Entente (Britain, France, & Russia). Although American soldiers only saw action for a few months in 1918, they helped defeat the Central Powers (Germany & Austria-Hungary).
Question 10
Question 10 refers to this excerpt from a pamphlet published in 1898 that memorialized the destruction of the USS Maine:

“The cause of ‘free Cuba’ is close to the hearts of all Americans because of the mis-management of the island by the Spanish Nation. The Cuban people look to the United States for succor and by reason of the fact that they are endeavoring to help themselves, they would appear to merit the same…the laws of humanity and the dictates of pure reason, would seem to rule, that Spain should not hold in subjection a nation which she cannot govern.”

What impact did the Spanish-American War have on the military and political status of the United States?

A
The war was a humiliating defeat for America and reduced the nation’s status.
B
The war was a stalemate that neither hurt nor helped America's status.
C
The war was a decisive victory, but did little to improve America's status as a world power because little was gained from the war.
D
The war was a decisive victory that helped propel the United Status on to the world stage.
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The Spanish-American War was a brief and lop-sided victory. The Treaty of Paris required Spain to cede many colonies to the United States which made the U.S. an imperial power. The war was largely a naval conflict which established the United States as a major sea-power as well.
Question 11
Questions 11-13 refer to the following from a May 1933 “fireside chat” by President Franklin D. Roosevelt:

“Two months ago we were facing serious problems. The country was dying by inches. It was dying because trade and commerce had declined to dangerously low levels; prices for basic commodities were such as to destroy the value of the assets of national institutions such as banks, savings banks, insurance companies, and others. These institutions, because of their great needs, were foreclosing mortgages, calling loans, refusing credit. Thus there was actually in process of destruction the property of millions of people who had borrowed money on that property.”

What was the main strategy President Roosevelt used in the New Deal to try and end the Great Depression?

A
Increased government regulation and spending.
B
Laissez-faire economics and private charity.
C
An early form of “pay it forward” where citizens did good deeds for each other.
D
The establishment of communism and the destruction of private property.
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Roosevelt, and many supporters, felt that more regulations were required in order to prevent some of the problems that had caused the Great Depression. New Dealers also wanted to see the government provide aid to people who were suffering and to stimulate the economy through higher spending.
Question 12
Questions 11-13 refer to the following from a May 1933 “fireside chat” by President Franklin D. Roosevelt:

“Two months ago we were facing serious problems. The country was dying by inches. It was dying because trade and commerce had declined to dangerously low levels; prices for basic commodities were such as to destroy the value of the assets of national institutions such as banks, savings banks, insurance companies, and others. These institutions, because of their great needs, were foreclosing mortgages, calling loans, refusing credit. Thus there was actually in process of destruction the property of millions of people who had borrowed money on that property.”

What impact did President Roosevelt’s New Deal have on the US economy?

A
It instantly solved the Great Depression.
B
Although it did not end the Great Depression, New Deal programs continue to affect Americans in the 21st century.
C
The New Deal was largely a failure and had little impact on the nation.
D
The New Deal was successful but was completely dismantled after the Great Depression ended.
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The New Deal alleviated many symptoms of the Great Depression but the economy did not fully recover until the United States entered World War II. However, the New Deal created programs such as Social Security and Medicare which remain in effect to this day.
Question 13
Questions 11-13 refer to the following from a May 1933 “fireside chat” by President Franklin D. Roosevelt:

“Two months ago we were facing serious problems. The country was dying by inches. It was dying because trade and commerce had declined to dangerously low levels; prices for basic commodities were such as to destroy the value of the assets of national institutions such as banks, savings banks, insurance companies, and others. These institutions, because of their great needs, were foreclosing mortgages, calling loans, refusing credit. Thus there was actually in process of destruction the property of millions of people who had borrowed money on that property.”

What impact, if any, did the New Deal have on US politics?

A
It completely destroyed the Republican and Democratic parties.
B
It led to a Communist dictatorship.
C
None — politics went on without any major changes.
D
It led to an ideological realignment of Republican and Democratic parties.
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The New Deal radically altered the membership and ideology of the Republicans and Democrats. Previously, Republicans had been advocates of increased government power but now the Democrats absorbed that platform. African-Americans had supported the Republican Party since the Civil War but generally supported the Democrats after the New Deal.
Question 14
Questions 14-16 refer to the following excerpt from Gen. Dwight D. Eisenshower’s message to Allied soldiers, sailors, and airmen on June 6, 1944:

“You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world.”

What long-term factors led to World War II?

A
The Holocaust and persecution of the Jews.
B
Appeasement and the rise of fascism.
C
A strong League of Nations which disarmed Allied powers.
D
The Great Depression and the Cold War.
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Although many people in both Europe and the United States were concerned about the rise of fascism during the 1930s, most were afraid to confront Germany, Italy, and Japan. The policy of appeasement was designed to avoid another conflict but it only encouraged more aggression, which ultimately led to World War II.
Question 15
Questions 14-16 refer to the following excerpt from Gen. Dwight D. Eisenshower’s message to Allied soldiers, sailors, and airmen on June 6, 1944:

“You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world.”

Which of the following advantages helped the United States achieve victory in World War II?

A
Large reserves of manpower.
B
Powerful industrial capacity.
C
Advanced technology, such as the atomic bomb.
D
All of the above.
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The United States was a powerful industrial nation and mobilized the entire society, including women and African-Americans, in order to achieve victory. The use of the atomic bomb helped hasten the end of the war and avoided a bloody invasion of the Japanese home islands.
Question 16
Questions 14-16 refer to the following excerpt from Gen. Dwight D. Eisenshower’s message to Allied soldiers, sailors, and airmen on June 6, 1944:

“You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world.”

What consequences did World War II have on status of the United States?

A
Although it was a great victory, the US quickly reverted to isolationism in order to avoid being drawn into another bloody conflict.
B
Although it was a great victory, the US was only one of many powerful nations that emerged victorious after the conflict.
C
The US emerged from the war as one of only two victorious nations and became a dominant world power.
D
World War II was a pyrrhic victory for all involved — victory came at a high cost that negated any benefits of victory.
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). World War II had devastated all the other major world powers, aside from the US and USSR. This left the US as the preeminent non-communist power and the nation took an increasingly dominant role in global affairs.
Question 17
Question 17 refers to the following excerpt from the prosecutor William Jennings Bryan’s summation of the 1925 Scopes Trial:

“Science is a magnificent force, but it is not a teacher of morals. It can perfect machinery, but it adds no moral restraints to protect society from the misuse of the machine. It can also build gigantic intellectual ships, but it constructs no moral rudders for the control of storm tossed human vessel. It not only fails to supply the spiritual element needed but some of its unproven hypotheses rob the ship of its compass and thus endangers its cargo.”

Which of the following sentences best describes the significance of the Scopes Trial?

A
It was an important case that set new standards for naval safety and equipment.
B
It was a minor case about evolution that drew little attention outside of Tennessee.
C
It was a major case that established Christianity as the official religion of the United States.
D
It was a major case that highlighted the growing tension between modern and traditional values.
Question 17 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The Scopes Trial embodied the controversy between Fundamentalists, who emphasized Biblical truth, and Modernists, who felt evolution and religion were compatible. The trial brought national attention and featured famous attorneys on both sides of the argument. It ended with a modest fine against the teacher John Scopes who was accused of teaching evolution but the ban was eventually repealed in 1967.
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