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In animal development, which stage of embryonic development involves the rearrangement of the blastula into a three-layered embryo?
Question 1 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). Gastrulation takes place when the blastula-stage embryo folds inward (through a series of tissue and cell movement) to create a three-layered embryo, called the gastrula. Cleavage is the first stage, involving the creation of the blastula (hollow ball of cells) through cell division. Organogenesis is the stage during which the three layers of the gastrula form rudimentary organs. Fertilization takes place before embryonic development.
Which group of tissues or organs most likely derived from the ectoderm layer during embryonic development in vertebrates?
Epithelial living of the digestive tract
Circulatory and lymphatic systems
Epithelial lining of the mouth and anus
Thyroid and parathyroid glands
Question 2 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). The ectoderm is the outer layer of the gastrula and forms. The epithelial lining of the mouth and anus are formed from the ectoderm. The endoderm lines the embryonic digestive tract and the thyroid and parathyroid glands, among other things. The mesoderm partly fills the space between the endo- and ectoderms. The circulatory and lymphatic system arise from the mesoderm, among other tissues and organs.
What is the unique family of genes in animals that plays an important role in the development of embryos, and controls the expression of other genes influencing animal morphology?
α-globin and β-globin
Question 3 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). Hox genes provide information about the location of tissues and organs during development. FOXPS functions in the vocalization of vertebrates. Mads-box genes are involved in flower development. α-globin and β-globin gene families are components of human hemoglobin.
Which group of organisms share these four key characteristic at some stage of their development: notochord; dorsal, hollow nerve cord; muscular, post-anal tail; and pharyngeal slits?
Question 4 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). Chordata is the phylum to which vertebrates belong along with the Craniata (such as hagfish), Unichordata (such as tunicates), Cephalochordata (such as lancelets), and, possibly, echinoderms. All chordates have the listed characteristics as defining features. Archaeans are unicellular prokaryotes. Angiosperms are flowering plants, and do not have any of the listed characteristics.
Which of the following is the longitudinal, flexible rod located between the digestive tract and nerve cord in chordates?
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Muscular, post-anal tail
Question 5 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). The notochord is a skeletal structure present at some point in all chordate development. It forms a longitudinal, flexible rod between the digestive tract and the nerve cord. The dorsal, hollow nerve cord forms the central nervous system. The post-anal tail extends beyond the anus in embryonic development. The pharyngeal slits may be modified into gill slits in aquatic organisms or into areas of the ear and structures in the head and neck in tetrapods.
Which group of mammals lays eggs?
Question 6 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). Monotremes include the platypus and spiny anteaters. They lay eggs. Marsupials are born very early and complete their development while nursing. Examples include opossums, kangaroos and koalas. Eutherinas, or placental mammals, have a long pregnancy and complete their embryonic development in the mother’s uterus. Although monotremes are amniotes, not all amniotes lay eggs.
What theory describes this cost-benefit compromise that favors the behavior that minimizes the costs of feeding and maximizes the benefits?
Optimal foraging model
Question 7 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). The optimal foraging model is used to predict behaviors that maximize the benefits (eating grass) of a feeding behavior while minimizing both the energy expended obtaining the food and the risks associated with (getting eaten by a mountain lion) obtaining the food. Cross-fostering refers to a method used by researchers to determine which environmental conditions contribute to behavior. Associative learning is the ability to associate one environmental feature with another, such as learning that yellow and black flying insects sting. Proximate causation looks the immediate cause of a behavior.
In some animal societies, such as honeybees, a single female mates with several males. This is referred to as:
Question 8 Explanation:
The correct answer is (C). Polyandry is a relationship in which one female mates with multiple males. Monogamous relationships involve mates that remain together for a long period of time. Polygyny is a relationship in which one male mates with multiple females. Polygenetic, as in polygenetic inheritance, refers to the effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character.
As tadpoles change into frogs, their tails get smaller and smaller as the cells die and are engulfed by neighboring cells. This is a familiar example of programmed cell death, which is referred to as:
Embryonic cell death
Question 9 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). Apoptosis is a genetically programmed series of events that result in cell death. Caspases are enzymes that carry out apoptosis. Bulk flow is term for the overall movement of fluid in one direction in an organism.
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