Practice Test 1

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Question 1
Questions 1–4 refer to the passage below:

If a faction consists of less than a majority, relief is supplied by the republican principle, which enables the majority to defeat its sinister views by regular vote. It may clog the administration, it may convulse the society; but it will be unable to execute and mask its violence under the forms of the Constitution. When a majority is included in a faction, the form of popular government, on the other hand, enables it to sacrifice to its ruling passion or interest both the public good and the rights of other citizens. To secure the public good and private rights against the danger of such a faction, and at the same time to preserve the spirit and the form of popular government, is then the great object to which our inquiries are directed. Let me add that it is the great desideratum by which this form of government can be rescued from the opprobrium under which it has so long labored, and be recommended to the esteem and adoption of mankind.

—James Madison, The Federalist No. 10
 
Which of the following comes closest to Madison’s notion of a faction?

A
bureaucratic agency
B
interest group
C
military interest
D
political party
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Federal bureaucratic agencies did not exist at the time The Federalist Papers were published. The United States had no standing army under the Articles of Confederation, so answer (C) is unlikely. Political parties are mentioned and were considered a type of faction at the time, but answer (B) is the more inclusive answer.
Question 2
If a faction consists of less than a majority, relief is supplied by the republican principle, which enables the majority to defeat its sinister views by regular vote. It may clog the administration, it may convulse the society; but it will be unable to execute and mask its violence under the forms of the Constitution. When a majority is included in a faction, the form of popular government, on the other hand, enables it to sacrifice to its ruling passion or interest both the public good and the rights of other citizens. To secure the public good and private rights against the danger of such a faction, and at the same time to preserve the spirit and the form of popular government, is then the great object to which our inquiries are directed. Let me add that it is the great desideratum by which this form of government can be rescued from the opprobrium under which it has so long labored, and be recommended to the esteem and adoption of mankind.

—James Madison, The Federalist No. 10
 
By what means do factions safeguard people’s rights?

A
Factions promote democracy.
B
Factions promote republicanism.
C
Factions encourage government to act against the interests of the people.
D
Factions discourage government from acting against the interests of the people.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Madison did not support democracy (A), the rule of the people. He did support a republican form of government (B), but factions do not promote republicanism. Rather, republicanism encourages factions. Answer (C) is the opposite of (D). Government has a hard time acting when different factions compete for power, and therefore, government has a difficult time violating people’s civil rights.
Question 3
If a faction consists of less than a majority, relief is supplied by the republican principle, which enables the majority to defeat its sinister views by regular vote. It may clog the administration, it may convulse the society; but it will be unable to execute and mask its violence under the forms of the Constitution. When a majority is included in a faction, the form of popular government, on the other hand, enables it to sacrifice to its ruling passion or interest both the public good and the rights of other citizens. To secure the public good and private rights against the danger of such a faction, and at the same time to preserve the spirit and the form of popular government, is then the great object to which our inquiries are directed. Let me add that it is the great desideratum by which this form of government can be rescued from the opprobrium under which it has so long labored, and be recommended to the esteem and adoption of mankind.

—James Madison, The Federalist No. 10
 
Which of the following theories of government comes closest to the main point of The Federalist No. 10?

A
bureaucratic
B
elite
C
participatory
D
pluralistic
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Pluralism involves many different groups competing for power and/or influence. The bureaucratic view (A) is the theory that bureaucratic agencies control government. The elite view (B) involves just a few key players. Participatory democracy (C) emphasizes the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems.
Question 4
If a faction consists of less than a majority, relief is supplied by the republican principle, which enables the majority to defeat its sinister views by regular vote. It may clog the administration, it may convulse the society; but it will be unable to execute and mask its violence under the forms of the Constitution. When a majority is included in a faction, the form of popular government, on the other hand, enables it to sacrifice to its ruling passion or interest both the public good and the rights of other citizens. To secure the public good and private rights against the danger of such a faction, and at the same time to preserve the spirit and the form of popular government, is then the great object to which our inquiries are directed. Let me add that it is the great desideratum by which this form of government can be rescued from the opprobrium under which it has so long labored, and be recommended to the esteem and adoption of mankind.

—James Madison, The Federalist No. 10
 
Which of the following Constitutional amendments most directly protects the activities of factions??

A
First
B
Second
C
Fourth
D
Ninth
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Interest groups are protected by the First Amendment rights to assemble as well as freedom of speech and the press. The Second Amendment (B) is the right to bear arms. The Fourth Amendment (C) protects against unreasonable search and seizure. The Ninth Amendment (D) protects the rights of the people that are not explicitly mentioned elsewhere in the Constitution.
Question 5
Questions 5–7 refer to the chart below:

Based on the chart above and what you know about United States government, which of the following is true?

A
Federal grants to state and local governments have increased at a rate greater than the rate of inflation.
B
Federal grants to state and local governments have increased at about the same rate as inflation.
C
Federal grants to state and local governments have increased at a rate lower than the rate of inflation.
D
Federal grants to state and local governments have not increased at all.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Inflation has increased annually at an average rate of 3.75 percent since 1960, but the graph on the left shows grants increasing at a far greater rate.
Question 6

The largest section of the pie chart probably goes to support

A
insurance subsidies.
B
Medicare.
C
Medicaid.
D
veterans benefits.
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Medicaid is a federally-funded state-run healthcare program. Medicare (B) and the Veterans Administration (D) are both run by the federal government. Insurance subsides (A) do not relate to the question.
Question 7

In order to receive the grants shown above, states and localities would have to agree to

A
block grants
B
categorical grants
C
discretionary grants
D
conditions of aid
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). This question is purely definitional. Block grants (A) come without conditions of aid and can be used by state and local governments for almost anything. Categorical grants (B) have narrow purposes and usually have several conditions of aid. Discretionary grants (C) are competitive and based on merit.
Question 8
An impeachment hearing is an example of

A
checks and balances.
B
popular sovereignty.
C
rule of law.
D
separation of powers.
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). In an impeachment hearing, Congress puts a check on the president, vice president, high-level officers of the executive branch, or judges. Popular sovereignty (B) is the idea that government authority emanates from the people. The rule of law (C) is the idea that no one, not even the president of the United States, is above the law. Separation of powers (D) assigns the legislative, executive, and judicial powers to separate branches of government.
Question 9
Article V of the Constitution illustrates

A
federalism.
B
judicial review.
C
limited government.
D
popular sovereignty.
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Article V is the constitutional amendment process, which normally requires a two-thirds majority in each house of Congress and the approval of three-quarters of the states. Thus, power is divided “federally,” between the Congress and the states. Judicial review (B) is the power of federal courts to rule on the constitutionality of laws or actions of the executive branch. Limited government (C) is the idea that government power should be limited by a constitution. Popular sovereignty (D) is the idea that government authority emanates from the people.
Question 10
How do most strict constructionists feel about the Patriot Act and other surveillance laws passed by Congress since the 9/11 terrorist attacks?

A
They support such laws because the federal government should have a strict response to terrorism.
B
They support such laws because the Constitution puts the federal government in charge of national defense.
C
They do not support such laws because they believe states should be in charge of homeland security.
D
They do not support such laws because surveillance of American citizens is not explicitly listed as a power of Congress in the Constitution.
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Strict constructionists believe the federal government should be strictly limited to powers that are expressly stated in the Constitution, which eliminates (A) and (B). (C) is plausible, but only (D) meets the exact definition.
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