Directions: The passage below is followed by questions about its content. Answer these passage-based reading questions on the basis of what is stated or implied.
Questions #1-6 are based on the following passage.
Hawaiian quilts, such as those created by Marthe Marques and Helen Friend, reflect an eclectic blend of early American quilt making, Hawaiian tradition, island imagery, spiritual influences, current events, and modern vision. Helen Friend, a recognized contemporary Hawaiian artist, produces quilted artworks inspired by nature’s power, Hawaii’s natural environment, current events, and historic textiles. Her quilt titled I ka Ho’okumuana (In the Beginning) depicts an aerial view of an erupting volcano constructed of appliqued red flames set against a black background fabric. This quilt embraces both the past and the future; it clearly falls within the provenance of a traditional Hawaiian quilt, and at the same time it challenges the boundaries of that definition.
While many historians claim that New England Missionaries brought quilting to the islands in 1820, it has been reported that Hawaiian women fashioned decorative bed coverings, called kapa moe, long before the missionaries’ arrival. Kapa moe were constructed from multiple layers of tapa, a paper-like fabric crafted from mulberry bark. The top layer of tapa was often dyed and decorated with beautiful geometric designs. The layers, each one comprised of a large piece of fabric, were stitched together, possibly to provide additional resilience.
With the arrival of the missionaries, Hawaiian quilters were introduced to American materials, quilting methods and designs. The missionaries brought metal needles, cotton fabrics, and cotton thread to Hawaii. In addition, they taught the native women to work with both patchwork and appliqued quilting. In patchwork quilting, designs on the quilt’s top layer are created by piercing small bits of fabric together to form patterns, then overstitched with contrasting designs when the layers of the quilt are united. With appliqued quilts, the quilt’s top layer is decorated with pieces of fabric cut to form images and designs. While many patchwork quilts incorporate small geometric shapes in various colors aligned to form larger geometric shapes, appliqued quilting allows quilters to express more natural shapes and images.
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The ideas expressed in the first two sentences have structures that can be described as
defense and rebuttal
assertion and evidence
evidence and conjecture
entreaty and dissent
apology and explanation
Question 1 Explanation:
The correct answer is (B). Questions that ask about the structure of the passage are called Function questions. The first sentence is a statement, and the second is an example of it. The “evidence” is in the second sentence, and the sentences do not contradict each other, nor is a request, or an “entreaty” made.
The author suggests which of the following about the works of Martha Marques and Helen Friend (sentence 1)?
They integrate traditional culture, early American needlework, and modern imagery.
They should be cherished as exquisite examples of traditional Hawaiian needlework.
They include designs symbolic of the natural flora and fauna of New England.
They ignore the cultural heritage of the Hawaiian Islands.
They adopt designs inspired by early American patchwork quilts.
Question 2 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). The word “suggests” tells us this is an Inference question. The correct answer will be a logical inference based on strong support from the passage. Lines 1-3 are best paraphrased by choice (A). (C) and (D) are opposite, and are contradicted by the passage, while (E) is a distortion. The techniques were adopted, not the designs.
In saying that I ka Ho’okumuana “embraces both the past and the future” (paragraph 1) the author suggests that the quilt
depicts historical volcanic eruptions
defies practical considerations
avoids traditional practices
adapts established artistic techniques
undermines contemporary aesthetics
Question 3 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). This is an Inference question. The sentence describes the quilt as both “traditional” and “challeng[ing] the boundaries,” so the correct answer will reflect that balance. (B) and (C) are contradicted by the passage, while (E) is too extreme with the word “undermines.”
The author mentions the traditional kapa moe (paragraph 2) in order to show that they
are examples of traditional bed coverings inspired by the New England missionaries
explain how modern quilters adopted the methods of their ancestors
can be found in modern Hawaiian households
predated the arrival of missionaries on the islands
are decorated with elaborate geometric designs
Question 4 Explanation:
The correct answer is (D). The words “in order to” in the question indicate this is a Function question. Paragraph 2 states that the Hawaiians were making bed coverings before the missionaries came. The closest match is (D). (E) is close, but is a slight distortion. Although the detail describes kapa moe, this is not why the author mentions it.
As used in paragraph 2, “resilience” most nearly means
Question 5 Explanation:
The correct answer is (E). If “resilience” is most likely a positive quality , that eliminates two negative choices: (A) and (D). Only choice (E) makes sense in context. For (B), “flexibility” doesn’t quite make sense in context. For (C), while “lighthearted” is positive, it is a word used to describe emotion, not an inanimate object like a quilt.
As used in paragraph 3, “piercing” most nearly means
Question 6 Explanation:
The correct answer is (A). The referenced line describes doing something to put together a quilt. Only (A) makes sense in that context. For (B), you cannot logically cut up small bits together. Similarly, they cannot be physically “created together as in (C). (D) and (E) are likewise illogical.
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